Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Minor Requirements

2021 - 2022 Catalog

Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies minor

A minor in women's, gender, and sexuality studies requires completion of 21 credits. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.

  1. Introduction: WGSS 120, preferably completed by the end of the sophomore year
  2. Intermediate theory course: either WGSS/LIT 210, WGSS 220, or WGSS/PHIL 244, preferably completed after WGSS 120
  3. Distribution: 12 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from each of the two areas. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Committee approves.
    1. Social and Natural Sciences: BIOL 255; CBSC 213, 215, 262, 269; ECON 246, 251; POL 255; 280, and WGSS 296; and when appropriate, ECON 295, POL 292, SOAN 291, WGSS 180, 403 (when topic is social or natural sciences), WGSS 451 (when the internship is at an agency that deals with public policy)
    2. Humanities and other disciplines: ARTH 365; CLAS 210; DANC 240; ENGL 254, 261, 312, 313, 316, 356, 359; HIST 206, 211, 219, 228, 257, 258, 261, 275, 285; LJS 345; PHIL 235, 242, 246, 254; REL 132, 215, 246, 284; SPAN 323; THTR 250; WGSS 295, 310; and, when appropriate, ENGL 250, 293, 295, 299, 392, 393, 394, 395; FREN 331, 397; HIST 229, 269; LATN 326; LIT 180, 295; REL 195, 295; SPAN 295, 397, and 398; WGSS 180, 403 (when topic is in humanities), WGSS 451 (when the internship is at an agency that deals with the arts, history, or other humanistic issues). Students may also count WGSS/LIT 210, WGSS 220, or WGSS/PHIL 244 towards the humanities distribution once they have taken another intermediate-level theory course.
  4. Capstone experience (preferably after the completion of all other requirements): WGSS 396 or another relevant individual study, senior thesis, or honors thesis in the student's major approved by the program committee.
  1. Introduction:
  2.  

    • WGSS 120 - Introduction to Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      An interdisciplinary introduction to the academic study of women, gender, and sexuality. We read the work of scholars who are trying to make sense of the complicated ways in which gender intersects with other power structures such as race, class, sexuality, and nationality. The course first introduces several key terms in gender and queer studies including intersectionality, social constructivism, oppression, and heteronormativity. Using these terms, we then further analyze topics such as the family as a social institution, gender in the workplace, beauty norms, gendered violence, the history of feminist and queer activism, and gender and queer identity in immigration law. Assignments encourage students to analyze their other academic pursuits, as well as the non-academic environments in which they live, including thinking critically about their own experiences in contemporary society. The course provides a foundation in feminist analysis for students who wish to complete a minor in Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies. It is also appropriate for students at any level who are seeking a more systematic understanding of how gendered dynamics shape the subjects of their major studies or the practices of their daily lives. 


    • preferably completed by the end of the sophomore year

  3. Intermediate theory course:
    • WGSS 210 - Women, Sexuality, and Gender in World Literature

      (LIT 210)

      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement
      FacultyRadulescu

      This course examines a plethora of literary texts chosen from across historical periods from antiquity, through early modern times, to the modern and postmodern era and across several national traditions and cultural landscapes.  Its main intellectual objective is to sensitize students to the ways in which women and gender have been represented in literary texts of various genres and to help them develop specific analytic skills in order to discover and evaluate the interconnections between the treatment of women in society and their artistic reflections in works of literature.


    • WGSS 220 - 21st-Century Feminism: Where Are We Now?
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyWalle

      Where it used to be considered a liability, the word feminist is now proudly claimed by pop stars and emblazoned on t-shirts. What has changed, and what should we make of this popular feminism? Does it herald a new age of equal rights, or does it threaten to undermine the progress that 20th-century feminists worked so hard to secure? Looking exclusively at texts published after 2000, this course surveys a wide range of feminist issues, including intersectionality, body positivity, sexual assault, trans feminism, popular feminism, feminist "merch", the 2016 election, and the future of feminism.


    • WGSS 244 - Feminist Social and Political Philosophy

      (PHIL 244)

      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyBell

      This course critically examines the gender norms that pervade our identities, govern our everyday behavior, and organize our social life. Questions addressed may include: What is gender? In what ways does it affect the quality of people's lives? Is gender difference natural? Is it valuable? Can it contribute to, or interfere with, human flourishing? Can a gendered society be just? What can any of us do to promote good relations among people of different genders?


  4. Distribution:
  5. 12 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from each of the two areas. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the Women's and Gender Studies Committee approves.

    • Social and Natural Sciences:

       

      • BIOL 255 - Reproductive Physiology
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
        FacultyStaff

        An examination of sex as a biological phenomenon with consideration of the genetic (chromosomal), embryological, endocrine, and neurological bases of sexual development, differentiation, and identity.


      • CBSC 213 - Development of Human Sexuality

        (PSYC 213)

        FDRSS3
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteCBSC 113 or PSYC 113
        FacultyFulcher

        This course examines the fundamentals of the development and practice of sexuality in the human being and the historical, psychological, and psychosocial aspects of human sexuality from childhood to old age. The course covers major theories of the development of sexuality in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian people. Students also explore how sexuality itself may be "constructed" as a result of culture, media, and gender. Primary source material as well as popular media depictions of sexuality are examined. Students engage in the creation of a comprehensive sexual education program which involves contact with parents, teachers, and experts in the field.


      • CBSC 215 - Seminar in Evolutionary Psychology

        (PSYC 215)

        FDRSS3
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteCBSC or PSYC 110, 111, 112, 113, or 114
        FacultyWhiting

        The purpose of this course is to examine evolutionary theory as a means of explaining human behavior. The main premise is that behaviors such as cooperation, aggression, mate selection, and intelligence exist because individuals exhibiting these behaviors were more likely to produce healthy offspring that perpetuated those behaviors (i.e., natural selection). We evaluate the validity of this argument in a number of areas of human behavior and also discuss how culture has shaped our genes. Evolutionary psychology is not an area of psychology, like social psychology or cognitive psychology, but is instead a lens through which all human behavior can be explained. Though it is tempting to engage in "arm chair" application of evolutionary theory to behavior, this is a science course; all arguments must be backed up with data.


      • CBSC 262 - Gender-Role Development

        (PSYC 262)

        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCBSC/PSYC 113, CBSC/PSYC 250 or WGSS 120
        FacultyFulcher

        This course provides the student with an overview of gender-role development: How do children learn to be boys and girls? What role do biological factors play in different behaviors of boys and girls? Does society push boys and girls in different directions? We discuss children's evolving ideas about gender, and what can be done to change these ideas (or whether they need to be changed at all). Through the examination of these questions and issues, the course introduces students to the major theories of gender-role development, the research methods used to measure children's gender-role behaviors and attitudes, and the current research in the field.


      • CBSC 269 - Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

        (PSYC 269)

        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCBSC/PSYC 114 and CBSC/PSYC 250 (as co-req or pre-req) or instructor consent
        FacultyWoodzicka

        This course examines cognitive and affective processes involved in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Causes and social implications of prejudice involving various stigmatized groups are examined. Participants focus on attitudes and behaviors of both perpetrators and targets of prejudice that likely contribute to and result from social inequality.


      • ECON 246 - Caste at the Intersection of Economy, Religion, and Law
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent. ECON 100 or 101 required only for credit as an elective in the Economics major
        FacultySilwal, Lubin

        Social stratification touches every aspect of life, and South Asia's traditional caste structure is a special case: this highly complex, strictly-adhered-to system has been religiously legitimized and criticized over a 3,000-year history, and is nowadays seen as being at odds with the modern world. Yet it remains a crucial factor in social identity, economic roles, legal status, and religious practice. This course offers a 360-degree survey of caste both historically and in practice today in Nepal. The course addresses four themes, respectively providing for each a combination of historical background, social scientific analysis of the modern situation, and direct field experience for the students.


      • ECON 251 - Women in the Economy
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
        FacultyShester

        Students explore how economic theory and analysis can be applied to examine the multiple roles that women play in our society. In particular, we examine linkages and changes in women's human capital, marriage, fertility, family structure, and occupation and labor supply decisions in the post-World War II era. We also investigate the magnitude and causes of the gender wage gap. We assess how much of the gender wage gap can be explained by education and occupational choice, and how much appears to be due to discrimination. We also learn about {and try to explain} the differences in labor-market outcomes for women with and without children. Finally, we access the causes and consequences of teenage pregnancy and single motherhood.


      • POL 255 - Gender and Politics
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisitePOL 100, 105 or 111 or instructor consent
        FacultyLeBlanc

        This course investigates the gendered terms under which women and men participate in political life. Attention is given to the causes of men's and women's different patterns of participation in politics, to processes that are likely to decrease the inequalities between men's and women's political power, and the processes by which society's gender expectations shape electoral and institutional politics. The different effects of gender on the practice of politics in different nations are compared, with a special emphasis placed on advanced industrial democracies.


      • SOAN 261 - Campus Sex in the Digital Age
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        FacultyGoluboff

        This class explores how the cell phone has impacted hooking up and dating at college, with particular attention to Washington and Lee University as a case study. We discuss the development of campus sexual culture in America and the influence of digital technology on student sociality. Students use open-source digital research tools to analyze data they collect on the mobile apps they use to socialize with each other on campus. As a digital humanities project, students work in groups to post their analyses on the class WordPress site.


      • SOAN 280 - Gender and Sexuality
        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyGoluboff

        This class will investigate gender and sexuality cross-culturally. We will give special consideration to biology, cultural variation, intersectionality, and power. The class will be structured around a collaboration with Project Horizon, a local organization that provides education and programming to address the pervasive problem of domestic and sexual violence. Students will volunteer their time there, as well as produce programming ideas for healthy sexual culture on our campus. 


      • WGSS 296 - Social Science Topics in Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteDepending on the topic, WGSS 120 or instructor consent

        A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme and/or geographic region relevant to the overall understanding of Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies, such as Men and Masculinities. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • and when appropriate,

      • ECON 295 - Special Topics in Economics
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteNormally ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102 but may vary with topic

        Course emphasis and prerequisites change from term to term and are announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of nine credits chosen from all special topics in economics courses may be used, with permission of the department head, toward requirements for the economics major.

        Spring 2022, ECON 295C-01: Special Topics in Economics: Introduction to Sustainable Development (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or 180. In September 2015, the world/UN adopted a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2015-2030 to replace the Millennium Development Goals when they expired in 2015. These SDGs set targets for reducing poverty, protecting the environment, and increasing equality of opportunity for those who may have had less than equal opportunity in the past - These are the three pillars of Sustainable Development.  The primary objective of this course is to provide an introduction to the concept, theories, and potential outcomes of sustainable development.  In addition to this, we will take a case study approach and look at policies and programs that have aimed to address each of the SDGs.  By the end of the term, you will have been introduced to sustainability through policies addressing oceans, biodiversity, climate, energy, education, social investment and health. Casey.

        Fall 2021, ECON 295A-01: Special Topics in Economics: Economy of Latin America (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102. Why were many Latin American countries, which started with levels of development similar to those of the U.S. and Canada, not able to keep up?  This course reviews the historic and contemporary economic issues and development in the Latin America and Caribbean region. We will start with the policies, both domestic and foreign, undertaken during the colonial and post-Independence periods and see what effects they still have today. Next, we examine the post-WWII period, exploring subjects like the import substitution of the 1970s, the debt crises of the 1980s, and the structural reforms of the 1990s. Finally, we will look at the current state of the region, emphasizing the new macroeconomic challenges and contemporary domestic social problems. Topics discussed include income inequality and poverty, inflation, macroeconomic populism, dollarization, and the more recent debt crises and restructurings. Alvarez.

        Fall 2021, ECON 295A-02: Special Topics in Economics: Economy of Latin America (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102. Why were many Latin American countries, which started with levels of development similar to those of the U.S. and Canada, not able to keep up?  This course reviews the historic and contemporary economic issues and development in the Latin America and Caribbean region. We will start with the policies, both domestic and foreign, undertaken during the colonial and post-Independence periods and see what effects they still have today. Next, we examine the post-WWII period, exploring subjects like the import substitution of the 1970s, the debt crises of the 1980s, and the structural reforms of the 1990s. Finally, we will look at the current state of the region, emphasizing the new macroeconomic challenges and contemporary domestic social problems. Topics discussed include income inequality and poverty, inflation, macroeconomic populism, dollarization, and the more recent debt crises and restructurings. Alvarez.

        Fall 2021, ECON 295B-01: Special Topics in Economics: Behavioral and Experimental Economics (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or ECON 101. The aim of the course will be to understand the notions of human behavior in everyday lives and its impact on markets. We will be taking the help of psychological insights to decipher why we overthink a bad outcome while undermining the possibility of a good outcome, what role does bias play when we place our bets in a casino or how do we create expectations in our minds regarding tomorrow's prices. We will be discussing policy prescriptions and analyzing case studies on how small changes in the environment can change human behavior so drastically. We will discuss the fundamentals of conducting laboratory and online experiments, which are valuable skill sets. Upadhyay.

        Fall 2021, ECON 295B-02: Special Topics in Economics: Behavioral and Experimental Economics (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or ECON 101. The aim of the course will be to understand the notions of human behavior in everyday lives and its impact on markets. We will be taking the help of psychological insights to decipher why we overthink a bad outcome while undermining the possibility of a good outcome, what role does bias play when we place our bets in a casino or how do we create expectations in our minds regarding tomorrow's prices. We will be discussing policy prescriptions and analyzing case studies on how small changes in the environment can change human behavior so drastically. We will discuss the fundamentals of conducting laboratory and online experiments, which are valuable skill sets. Upadhyay.


      • POL 292 - Topics in Politics and Film
        FDRSS2
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteVary by offering. Open to non-majors and majors of all class years

        This course examines how film and television present political issues and themes. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

         


      • SOAN 291 - Special Topics in Anthropology
        Credits3-4

        A discussion of a series of topics of anthropological concern. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Spring 2022, SOAN 291A-01: Special Topics in Anthropology: Ethnohistory of W&L's Past (3). In this course we will apply interdisciplinary methods to study four centuries of W&L material culture and historic records. These items will be used to uncover overlooked stories about W&L founders, its evolving curriculum, and the historic campus. During the term we will visit multiple collections of art, ceramics, artifacts, and documents on campus. We will also explore on and off-campus historic landscapes, including local graveyards. Students will synthesize this material and produce several deliverables: (1) three essays (worth 10% each), (2) a poster for the Spring Term Showcase that analyzes the past social networks of our community (worth 20%), and (3) ten assignments (worth a total of 30%) on a range of ethno-historic topics. The final 20% of your grade will be based on participatory activities during class. Rainville.


        Spring 2022, SOAN 291B-02: Special Topics in Anthropology: Social Media Analytics (3). In this course, students will learn a number of analytics tools that can be used to leverage social media data, with an emphasis on using these data to examine anthropological questions.  In particular, the course will introduce tools such as sentiment analysis, topic modeling, and social network analysis, implementing these in Python, and will include a number of hands-on exercises.  No previous exposure to Python is assumed.  We will use these tools to explore questions about topics like public opinion about migration, pandemics, and politics of race and gender. Dogan.

        Spring 2022, SOAN 291C-01: Special Topics in Anthropology: Indigenous Healing Systems and the Lakotas (3). Despite radical differences in theory and procedure, the diagnosis and treatment of illnesses are human cultural universals. In this seminar we will first overview the various types of medical anthropology that describe and analyze the cross-cultural healing systems found throughout the world. We will next investigate the variations in beliefs that different human communities hold concerning the causation (etiology) of illnesses. With this as our background we will begin our examination of the Lakotas' (Western "Sioux") medical system, commencing with the spiritual foundations upon which its ideas and practices of curing rest. The traditional ceremonies through which Lakotas have sought and continue to seek curing will be our next subject, and will entail descriptions of how these rites are performed and the types of healers who carry them out. The seminar will close by probing the complicated history of biomedicine among the Lakotas and some of the reasons behind these difficulties. Markowitz.


      • WGSS 180 - FS: First-year Seminar
        FDROffered occasionally. Each first-year seminar topic is approved by the Dean of The College and the Committee on Courses and Degrees. Applicability to FDRs and other requirements varies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFirst-year standing

        First-year seminar. Topics vary with term and instructor.


      • WGSS 403 - Directed Individual Study
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCumulative grade-point average of at least 3.000, completion of three courses that count towards the WGSS minor, and instructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        A course which permits the student to follow a program of directed reading or research in an area not covered in other courses. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • WGSS 451 - Internship

        (when the internship is at an agency that deals with public policy)

        Credits1
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Professional development through an external, on-site internship. Requires at least 45 hours of work over no fewer than four weeks. May be repeated for a maximum of three degree credits toward the university limit of nine credits. Students may only register for one WGSS internship per summer.


    • Humanities and other disciplines:

       

      • ARTH 365 - Women, Art, and Empowerment
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyKing

        This seminar explores female artists from the late 18th century through the present, whose depictions of women have directly challenged the value system in art history that has traditionally privileged white heterosexual male artists, audiences, collectors, historians, curators, etc. Lectures, discussions, and research projects address multicultural perspectives and provide a sense of feminism's global import in a current and historical context.


      • CLAS 210 - Sex, Gender and Power in Ancient Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultyDance

        Open to all students without prerequisite. An examination of literature in various genres (poetry, philosophy, drama, and history) in an attempt to understand the diverse ways in which Greeks and Romans conceived of gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality. We also interrogate the power dynamics that underpinned these conceptions. Readings include primary sources from antiquity (e.g., Homer, Euripides, Plato, Plautus, Livy, Ovid) as well as secondary sources that explore sex, gender, and power in both ancient and modern contexts.  The course examines several influential works composed in Greek and Latin between the 8th century BCE and the 1st century CE. Alongside poems and philosophical writings that were originally conceived of as literary projects, we also examine plays, historical works, and even some inscriptions, all of which come down to the present as "literature", although many may not have been conceived as such. The boundaries of "literature" is an ongoing topic of inquiry throughout the term.


      • DANC 240 - Contemporary Modern Dance History
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyDavies

        This course is a study of the manifestations of American modern dance from the beginning of the 20th century to the present. Students explore the relationship between dance and developments in U.S. culture and study the innovators of the art form and their techniques, writings, and art works through readings, video and lectures.


      • ENGL 254 - I Heart Jane: Austen's Fan Cultures and Afterlives
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FDR FW requirement
        FacultyWalle

        In the 20th and 21st centuries, Jane Austen has attained a celebrity that far exceeds the recognition she enjoyed during her lifetime. The fan culture that now surrounds Austen, her spunky heroines, and her swoon-worthy heroes rivals that of Star Wars or Harry Potter. Austen enthusiasts meet for book club, wear Regency costumes, convene for tea, and throw balls with period-appropriate music and dance. All of this mooning over Mr. Darcy, however, could easily be the object of Austen's own satire. Mercilessly lampooning silliness and frivolity, "dear Jane" was more inveterate cynic than hopeless romantic. How, then, did Austen transform from biting social satirist to patron saint of chick lit? Beginning with three of Austen's novels, and then turning to the fan cultures surrounding Pride and Prejudice, this course examines the nature of fandom, especially its propensity to change and adapt the very thing it celebrates. What does it mean to be a fan? Is there such a thing as an "original" or authorial meaning of a text? What do Austen's fan cultures say about both the novels themselves and the society that appropriates them?


      • ENGL 261 - Reading Gender
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyStaff

        A course on using gender as a tool of literary analysis. We study the ways ideas about masculinity and femininity inform and are informed by poetry, short stories, novels, plays, films, and/or pop culture productions. Also includes readings in feminist theory about literary interpretation and about the ways gender intersects with other social categories, including race, ethnicity, sexuality, and class. Historical focus will vary according to professor's areas of interest and expertise. We study novels, poems, stories, and films that engage with what might be considered some major modern myths of gender: popular fairy tales. We focus at length upon the Cinderella and Red Riding Hood stories but also consider versions of several additional tales, always with the goal of analyzing the particular ideas about women and men, girls and boys, femininity and masculinity that both underlie and are produced by specific iterations of these familiar stories.


      • ENGL 312 - Gender, Love, and Marriage in the Middle Ages
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299
        FacultyKao

        A study of the complex nexus of gender, love, and marriage in medieval legal, theological, political, and cultural discourses. Reading an eclectic range of texts--such as romance, hagiography, fabliau, (auto)biography, conduct literature, and drama--we consider questions of desire, masculinity, femininity, and agency, as well as the production and maintenance of gender roles and of emotional bonds within medieval conjugality. Authors include Chaucer, Chretien de Troyes, Heldris of Cornwall, Andreas Capellanus, Margery Kempe, and Christine de Pisan. Readings in Middle English or in translation. No prior knowledge of medieval languages necessary.

         


      • ENGL 313 - Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299
        FacultyKao

        This course considers the primary work on which Chaucer's reputation rests: The Canterbury Tales. We pay sustained attention to Chaucer's Middle English at the beginning of the semester to ease the reading process. Then we travel alongside the Canterbury pilgrims as they tell their tales under the guise of a friendly competition. The Canterbury Tales is frequently read as a commentary on the social divisions in late medieval England, such as the traditional estates, religious professionals and laity, and gender hierarchies. But despite the Tales' professed inclusiveness of the whole of English society, Chaucer nonetheless focuses inordinately on those individuals from the emerging middle classes. Our aim is to approach the Tales from the practices of historicization and theorization; that is, we both examine Chaucer's cultural and historical contexts and consider issues of religion, gender, sexuality, marriage, conduct, class, chivalry, courtly love, community, geography, history, power, spirituality, secularism, traditional authority, and individual experience. Of particular importance are questions of voicing and writing, authorship and readership. Lastly, we think through Chaucer's famous Retraction at the "end" of The Canterbury Tales, as well as Donald R. Howard's trenchant observation that the Tale is "unfinished but complete." What does it mean for the father of literary "Englishness" to end his life's work on the poetic principle of unfulfilled closure and on the image of a society on the move?


      • ENGL 356 - Whitman vs Dickinson
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteOne course numbered between ENGL 201 and 295, and one course numbered between ENGL 222 and 299
        FacultyWheeler

        In this seminar, students read two wild and wildly different U.S. poets alongside queer theory about temporality. Since we are discussing queerness in the past, present, and future, we will also consider 2lst-century reception of 19th-century literature and history, and students will participate in a Nineteenth-Century Poetry Slam.


      • ENGL 359 - Literature by Women of Color
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299
        FacultyMiranda

        This course focuses on the intersection of race and gender as they meet in the lives and identities of contemporary women of color via literature: African-Americans, Native Americans, Chicanas, Asian-Americans, and mixed bloods, or 'mestizas.' Our readings, discussions and writings focus on the work that "coming to voice" does for women of color, and for our larger society and world. Students read a variety of poetry, fiction, and autobiography in order to explore some of the issues most important to and about women of color: identity, histories, diversity, resistance and celebration. Literary analyses-i.e., close readings, explications and interpretations-are key strategies for understanding these readings.


      • HIST 206 - Gender & Sexuality in Modern Europe
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyHorowitz

        This course investigates the history of Europe from the late 18th century to the present day through the lens of women's lives, gender roles, and changing notions of sexuality. We examine how historical events and movements (industrialization, the world wars, etc.) had an impact on women, we look at how ideas about gender shaped historical phenomena, such as imperialism and totalitarianism. We also consider the rise of new ideas about sexuality and the challenge of feminism.


      • HIST 211 - Scandal, Crime, and Spectacle in the 19th Century
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyHorowitz, Walsh

        This course examines the intersection between scandal, crime, and spectacle in 19th-century France and Britain. We discuss the nature of scandals, the connection between scandals and political change, and how scandals and ideas about crime were used to articulate new ideas about class, gender, and sexuality. In addition, this class covers the rise of new theories of criminality in the 19th century and the popular fascination with crime and violence. Crime and scandal also became interwoven into the fabric of the city as sources of urban spectacle. Students are introduced to text analysis and data mining for the humanities.


      • HIST 219 - Seminar: The Age of the Witch Hunts
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteOpen to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. First-years may request instructor consent
        FacultyBrock

        This course introduces students to one of the most fascinating and disturbing events in the history of the Western world: the witch hunts in early-modern Europe and North America. Between 1450 and 1750, more than 100,000 individuals, from Russia to Salem, were prosecuted for the crime of witchcraft. Most were women and more than half were executed. In this course, we examine the political, religious, social, and legal reasons behind the trials, asking why they occurred in Europe when they did and why they finally ended. We also explore, in brief, global witch hunts that still occur today in places like Africa and India, asking how they resemble yet differ from those of the early-modern world.


      • HIST 228 - Women in Russian History
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBidlack

        Students read many accounts by and about Russian women to gain an understanding of how Russian women have been affected by wars, revolutions, and other major events and, simultaneously, how they have been agents of change from the beginnings Russian history up to the present.


      • HIST 257 - History of Women in America, 1609-1870
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultySenechal

        An examination of women's social, political, cultural and economic positions in America through the immediate post-Civil War. Changes in women's education, legal status, position in the family, and participation in the work force with emphasis on the diversity of women's experience, especially the manner in which class and race influenced women's lives. The growth of organized women's rights.


      • HIST 258 - History of Women in America, 1870 to the Present
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultySenechal

        A survey of some of the major topics and themes in American women's lives from the mid-19th century to the present, including domestic and family roles, economic contributions, reproductive experience, education, suffrage, and the emergence of the contemporary feminist movement. The influence on women's roles, behavior, and consciousness by the social and economic changes accompanying industrialization and urbanization and by variations in women's experience caused by differences in race, class, and region.


      • HIST 261 - Women and Slavery in the Black Atlantic
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyDennie

        From the 16th century to the 19th century, over 12 million Africans were shipped to the New World. Of those who survived the Middle Passage, fewer than 500,000 arrived in the United States; the vast majority were dispersed throughout the Caribbean and South America. The experiences of enslaved women, as well as the relationships between free and enslaved women, are as diverse as the African diaspora. Given the broad geographical scope of Africans' arrivals in the New World, this course offers a comparative examination of women and slavery in the Black Atlantic. Topics for consideration include black women's gendered experiences of slavery, white women's roles in slave societies, and women abolitionists. Students also examine how African and European conceptions of gender shaped the institution of slavery in the New World. Particular attention is devoted to slavery in West Africa, Barbados, Cuba, Brazil, and the United States.


      • HIST 275 - African Women in Comparative Perspective
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBallah

        In this course, we will widen our appreciation of African Women's experiences, including history, legal and socio-economic status, religious and political roles, productive and reproductive roles, and the impact of colonialism and post-independence development and representation issues. The course will move across time and space to examine the aforementioned in pre-colonial, colonial and 'post'-colonial Africa. We will begin with the question: What common beliefs/images about African women did/do Euro-Americans share?


      • HIST 285 - Seminar: The Yin and Yang of Gender in Late Imperial China (10th-19th centuries)
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBello

        Relations between men and women are the basis of any human society, but the exact nature and interpretation of these relations differ from time to time and from place to place. The concepts of Yin (female) and Yang (male) were integral to the theory and practice of Chinese gender relations during the late imperial period, influencing marriage, medicine and law. This course examines the historical significance of late-imperial gender relations across these, and other, categories from both traditional and modern perspectives.


      • LJS 345 - Mass Atrocity, Human Rights, and International Law
        FDRHU
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing
        FacultyMark Drumbl

        This course is designed to benefit students with an interest in law school and/or international relations and also those with no plans to pursue law school or international relations work but who are keen to catch a view of both of these areas. This interdisciplinary course reflects upon the place of law and justice in societies that have endured or inflicted systemic human-rights violations. Among the examples we study are Germany, the former Yugoslavia, Japan, Czech Republic, Poland, Rwanda, Sudan, Iraq, Uganda, Cambodia, Syria, South Africa, Congo, ISIS, Sierra Leone, and the United States. A related aim is to consider what sorts of legal responses are suitable to deal with perpetrators of mass atrocity. Individuals commit the acts that cumulatively lead to mass atrocity, but the connived nature of the violence implicates questions of collective responsibility. While our instinct may be to prosecute guilty individuals, are other responses more appropriate? What do victims and their families want?


      • REL 132 - God and Goddess in Hinduism
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        This course explores the many ways in which Hindus visualize and talk about the divine and its manifestations in the world through mythic stories, use of images in worship, explanations of the nature of the soul and body in relation to the divine, and the belief in human embodiments of the divine in Hindu holy men and women. Topics include: the religious meanings of masculine and feminine in the divine and human contexts; the idea of local, family, and "chosen" divinities; and differing forms of Hindu devotion for men and women.


      • REL 215 - Female and Male in Western Religious Traditions
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBrown

        An investigation of views about the body, human sexuality, and gender in Western religious traditions, especially Judaism and Christianity, and of the influences of these views both on the religious traditions themselves and on the societies in which they develop. The course focuses on religion and society in antiquity and the Middle Ages, but also considers the continuing influence of religious constructions of the body and sexuality on succeeding generations to the present.


      • REL 246 - Caste at the Intersection of Economy, Religion, and Law
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent. ECON 100 or 101 required only for credit as an elective in the Economics major
        FacultyLubin, Silwal

        Social stratification touches every aspect of life, and South Asia's traditional caste structure is a special case: this highly complex, strictly-adhered-to system has been religiously legitimized and criticized over a 3,000-year history, and is nowadays seen as being at odds with the modern world. Yet it remains a crucial factor in social identity, economic roles, legal status, and religious practice. This course offers a 360-degree survey of caste both historically and in practice today in Nepal. The course addresses four themes, respectively providing for each a combination of historical background, social scientific analysis of the modern situation, and direct field experience for the students. 


      • REL 284 - Women and Gender in Islam
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyAl-Ahmad

        How have issues of gender and sexuality in Medieval and Modern Islamic societies been debated across the Middle East, South Asia, and the West? Students examine scholarly and public discussions of gender and Islam, and they build a vocabulary in which to talk about women. queer, and intersex history as they concern Muslim societies and their foundational sources in their regional and historical contexts. No prior knowledge of Islam is necessary.


      • SPAN 323 - Golden Age Spanish Women Writers
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275
        FacultyCampbell

        A study of the comedia and the novela corta and the manner in which the secular women writers inscribe themselves within and beyond these genres. Close reading and discussion of representative works that may include the short stories and plays by María de Zayas, Ana Caro, Leonor de Meneses, Mariana de Carvajal, and Angela de Azevedo.


      • THTR 250 - Women in Contemporary Theater
        FDRHA
        Credits3

        This course explores the contemporary theater scene, investigating its plays, playwrights, directors and actors. The representation of women in theatrical art, as well as the unique contributions of contemporary women as artists, theorists and audiences, provides the principal focus of study. Traditional critical and historical approaches to the material are complemented by play reading, play attendance, oral presentations, writing assignments, journal writing and the creation of individual performance pieces.


      • WGSS 210 - Women, Sexuality, and Gender in World Literature

        (LIT 210)

        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement
        FacultyRadulescu

        This course examines a plethora of literary texts chosen from across historical periods from antiquity, through early modern times, to the modern and postmodern era and across several national traditions and cultural landscapes.  Its main intellectual objective is to sensitize students to the ways in which women and gender have been represented in literary texts of various genres and to help them develop specific analytic skills in order to discover and evaluate the interconnections between the treatment of women in society and their artistic reflections in works of literature.


      • WGSS 235 - The Second Sex: Beauvoir on the Power of Gender

        (PHIL 235)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyVerhage

        Sixty years after its initial publication, The Second Sex is as eye-opening and relevant as ever. Simone de Beauvoir's masterpiece weaves together history, philosophy, economics, biology, and a host of other disciplines to analyze the Western notion of "woman" and to explore the making and the power of gender and sexuality. The Second Sex is an important philosophical and political document about inequality and enforced "otherness." Referring to the history of philosophy, new developments in existential thought, and drawing on extensive interviews with women, Beauvoir synthesizes research about women's bodies and psyches as well as their historic and economic roles.


      • WGSS 242 - Social Inequality and Fair Opportunity

        (PHIL 242)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        An exploration of the different range of opportunities available to various social groups, including racial, ethnic and sexual minorities, women, and the poor. Topics include how to define fair equality of opportunity; the social mechanisms that play a role in expanding and limiting opportunity; legal and group-initiated strategies aimed at effecting fair equality of opportunity and the theoretical foundations of these strategies; as well as an analysis of the concepts of equality, merit and citizenship, and their value to individuals and society


      • WGSS 244 - Feminist Social and Political Philosophy

        (PHIL 244)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        This course critically examines the gender norms that pervade our identities, govern our everyday behavior, and organize our social life. Questions addressed may include: What is gender? In what ways does it affect the quality of people's lives? Is gender difference natural? Is it valuable? Can it contribute to, or interfere with, human flourishing? Can a gendered society be just? What can any of us do to promote good relations among people of different genders?


      • WGSS 246 - Philosophy of Sex

        (PHIL 246)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        This course explores questions related to contemporary conceptions of sexuality and its proper role in our lives. Questions addressed include: What is the purpose of sex? Are sexual practices subject to normative evaluation on grounds of morality, aesthetics, and/or capacity to promote a flourishing human life? We consider the relation between sex and both intimacy and pleasure, viewed from the perspective of heterosexual women and men, and gay men and lesbians. What are our sexual practices and attitudes toward sex? What should they be like?


      • WGSS 254 - Philosophy of the Family: Beyond Tradition

        (PHIL 254)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        This course considers philosophical issues raised by family as a social institution and as a legal institution. Topics addressed include the social and personal purposes served by the institution of family, the nature of relationships between family members, the various forms that family can take, the scope of family privacy or autonomy, and how family obligations, mutual support, and interdependency affect individual members of families.


      • WGSS 295 - Humanities Topics in Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteDepending on the topic, WGSS 120 or instructor consent

        A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme and/or geographic region relevant to the overall understanding of Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies, such as Hispanic Feminisms. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • and when appropriate:

      • and, when appropriate (topic is humanities),

      • ENGL 250 - Medieval and Early Modern British Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyKao

        This course is a survey of English literature from the Early Middle Ages to the Early Modern period. We read works in various genres--verse, drama, and prose--and understand their specific cultural and historical contexts. We also examine select modern film adaptations of canonical works as part of the evolving history of critical reception.


      • ENGL 293 - Topics in American Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3-4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of the FW requirement

        Studies in American literature, supported by attention to historical contexts. Versions of this course may survey several periods or concentrate on a group of works from a short span of time. Students develop their analytical writing skills in a series of short papers. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Spring 2022, ENGL 293-01: Topics in American Literature: Business in Lit and Film (4).  In his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith tells a powerful story of the free market as a way to organize our political and economic lives, a story that has governed much of the world ever since. This course studies that story, considers alternate stories of human economic organization, such as those of American Indian tribes, and sees how these stories have been acted out in American business and society. We study films, short stories, non-fiction essays, autobiographies, poems, advertisements, websites, some big corporations, and some local businesses. Our goal is not to attack American business but to understand its characteristic strengths and weaknesses so we can make the best choices about how to live and work happily in a free market society. (HL) Smout.

        Winter 2022, ENGL 293A-01: Topics in American Literature: Literature of the Forest (3).  Prerequisite: Completion of the FDR FW requirement. Narratives set in and around forests, especially tales of adventure, danger, and even horror, run throughout the course of human history from the earliest surviving examples of story-telling to the present.  More pointedly, major theories of literature and civilization (concepts often equated) have long noted and explored the profound opposition to the forest seen as the enemy or, as one noted critic calls it, the "shadow" of civilization to the great project of civilization.  This course surveys the development from the forest seen in such terms to our current, increasingly anxious sense that humankind's long war with forests in now culminating in their looming destruction—and perhaps, as a consequence, our own.  Texts range from fairytales and short stories, through essays and poems, to novels and films with a few non-English language writers such as Tacitus, Madame de la Mothe, and the Brothers Grimm but the majority selected from a list including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Robert Frost through Stephen King, Annie Proulx, and several contemporary filmmakers.  Possible theorists include G.P. Marsh, Robert Pogue Harrison, Timothy Morton, and Amitav Ghosh. (HL) Adams.

        Winter 2022, ENGL 293B-01: Topics in American Literature: Literature and Film of the American West (3). Prerequisite: Completion of the FDR FW requirement. The American West is a land of striking landscapes, beautiful places to visit such as Yellowstone and Yosemite, and stories that have had a huge impact on the USA and the world, such as Lewis and Clark, the Oregon Trial, Custer's Last Stand, Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, and Cowboy and Indian adventures galore.  This course studies some of these Western places, stories, art works, and movies.  What has made them so appealing?  How have they been used?  We study works by authors such as John Steinbeck, Frederic Remington, Willa Cather, Wallace Stegner, and Cormac McCarthy, plus movies with actors like John Wayne, Clint Eastwood, and Kevin Costner to see how Western stories have played out and what is happening now in these contested spaces. (HL) Smout.

        Winter 2022, ENGL 293C-01: Topics in American Literature: Asian American Literature (3). Prerequisite: Completion of the FDR FW requirement. A study of literatures by Asian-American authors, with a focus on how Asian Americans—broadly and inclusively defined—have transformed the social, political, and cultural landscapes of the United States. With such topics as immigration and refugee politics, racism and xenophobia, exclusion and internment, civil-rights activism, the post-9/11 period, and the model-minority myth, our selected texts (novels, poetry, short stories) present both a historical and an intimate look into the lives of individuals who articulate what it means to identify as Asian American in the modern and contemporary United States. Potential texts include John Okada's No-No Boy, Ted Chiang's The Merchant and the Alchemist's Gate, Celeste Ng's Everything I Never Told You, R. O. Kwon's The Incendiaries, and Ocean Vuong's On Earth We're Briefly Gorgeous. (HL) Kharputly.

        Winter 2022, ENGL 293D-01: Topics in American Literature: Form and Freedom in Modern American Poetry (3). Prerequisite: Completion of the FDR FW requirement. This survey course in American poetry will extend from Walt Whitman in the nineteenth century through Tracy Smith, today. We'll focus on how American poets have experimented with all kinds of free verse and traditional forms, including Langston Hughes's blues poetry, Sylvia Plath's syllabic verse, and Joy Harjo's prose poems. Robert Frost once said that "writing free verse is like playing tennis without a net." This course will look at the net in William Carlos Williams's poems and the freedom in Frost's. (HL) Brodie.

        Winter 2022, ENGL 293E-01: Topics in American Literature: Nature as Self: Environmental Literature in the Anthropocene (3). Prerequisite: Completion of the FDR FW requirement. In this course we study American ideas of Nature and Self in environmental literature. We discuss wilderness, cultivation, loss, hope, and interconnection for humans as members of societies and of ecosystems. Texts come from the cutting edge of EcoWriting (Robin Wall-Kimmerer, Ross Gay, Camille Dungy, and many more) with a framing in traditional environmental literature (Thoreau, Whitman, etc.) and in environmental theory (William Cronon, Robert Macfarlane, etc.). With the help of these thinkers, we test our own understandings of human relationships to the more-than-human world. (HL) Green.

        Fall 2021, ENGL 293A-01: Topics in American Literature: Introduction to Graphic Narratives (3). Prerequisite: Completion of the FDR FW writing requirement. This course briefly explores early works in the graphic novel form before shifting to a central focus on 21st-century publications from a range of presses outside of U.S. mainstream comics. Students also read a range of literary theory on the formal qualities of graphic novels and then apply those theories to the analysis of selected works. (HL) Gavaler.

         


      • ENGL 295 - Spring-Term Seminar in Literary Studies
        FDRHL
        Credits3-4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FDR FW requirement

        Students in this course study a group of works related by theme, by culture, by topic, by genre, or by the critical approach taken to the texts. Involves field trips, film screenings, service learning, and/or other special projects, as appropriate, in addition to 8-10 hours per week of class meetings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Spring 2022, ENGL 295-01: Spring-Term Seminar in Literary Studies: Writing and Art (3).  Writing and Art A lot of great poetry and prose has been written in response to paintings, sculptures and other works of art. This is called ekphrastic writing, and our spring class will be an ekphrastic feast. We'll read many famous examples--from Keats' "Ode on a Grecian Urn" to Anne Carson's "Hopper: Confessions." We'll also study new writings commissioned by the Museum of Modern Art, in New York. Over the past few years MoMA has invited writers to reflect upon various works in their collection. Our focus will be Jacob Lawrence's Migration Series--60 small paintings that tell the story of the Great Migration--and we'll zoom with Leah Dickerman, the MoMA art historian who curated an exhibit on that series. Then we'll close-read poems written in response to Lawrence's paintings, including works by Rita Dove and W&L alumna Lyrae Van Clief-Stefanon. We'll also spend considerable time each week visiting local galleries and private studios, and exploring W&L's art collection. Students will keep a journal of their own informal ekphrastic writings, graded pass/fail. Course requirements will include two analytical papers and a take-home final essay/exam. (HL) Brodie.


      • ENGL 299 - Seminar for Prospective Majors
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW composition requirement and at least one course chosen from English courses numbered from 201 to 295

        A study of a topic in literature issuing in a research process and sustained critical writing. Some recent topics have been Detective Fiction; American Indian Literatures; Revenge; and David Thoreau and American Transcendentalism.


      • FREN 331 - Etudes thématiques
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteThree courses at the 200 level

        This course gives students a general knowledge of the evolution of French literature and ideas over the centuries through the study of one main theme. Recent offerings include: L'Exil; Regards sur la ville; Le dépaysement; Le voyage dans la literature française; L'esprit critique au XVIIIe siècle. May be repeated for degree credit if the theme is different.

        Winter 2022, FREN 331A-01: Etudes thématiques: Balzac & Money in 19th-Century France (3). Prerequisites: Three courses at the 200 level. In the early nineteenth century, Balzac endeavors to portray his contemporary society through a series of fictional novels and short stories that become known collectively as La Comédie humaine (1829-1848). Far surpassing the traditional functions of entertainment and diversion, his literature provides an historically accurate and detailed account of the intricacies of French society in the throes of a monumental shift from an agricultural to an industrial economy - a period when monetary power overtakes political and social preeminence. This course will explore the social impact of a burgeoning monetary and financial system. (HL) Roney.

         


      • ENGL 392 - Topics in Literature in English before 1700
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English before 1700 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2022, ENGL 392A-01: Topics in Literature in English before 1700: Villainy and Virtue on Stage (3). Prerequisite: Take one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299. English theater of the Middle Ages and Renaissance revels in displays of rampant vice and spectacles of maligned virtue. When Shakespeare's Falstaff delights audiences with his combination of outrageous lies and quick wit, his charm is buoyed by a tradition of unabashed villainy and skillful temptation that began with medieval representations of Lucifer. When Hermione stands trial for adultery in The Winter's Tale, the authority of her defense (and the stone-heartedness of her accuser) recalls popular tales of female saints and mystics. Why were these character types so compelling for so long—and to audiences who vowed to shut down the public theater, what made them so potentially dangerous? This course, by focusing on the villains that audiences love to hate and the saintly figures who inspire both faith and doubt, exposes the rich transhistorical conversations that occur between plays and across genres; with works like Mankind and the Chester Antichrist set next to Dr. Faustus and The Devil is an Ass, the schedule connects Shakespeare and his contemporaries to their predecessors in order to uncover the active, unruly, and even profane world of early English drama. (HL) York.

         


      • ENGL 393 - Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English from 1700 to 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

         


      • ENGL 394 - Topics in Literature in English since 1900
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English since 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2021, ENGL 394A-01: Topics in Literature in English since 1900: American Outdoor Adventure Stories (3). Prerequisites: One English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299. Here in the New World, where Europeans arrived already excited about untouched wilderness waiting to be explored (and willfully blind to the native peoples living here), stories about travel and adventure were popular from the start. This class studies selected stories historically, seeing how the careers of writers like Henry David Thoreau, Mark Twain, and Herman Melville began with travel writings, and how adventure stories since then have developed, contributing to an explosion in extreme sports and outdoor recreation. Other authors may include John Muir, Jack London, Ernest Hemingway, Cormac McCarthy, Hampton Sides, Jon Krakauer, and Cheryl Strayed. We also study contemporary movies like Free Solo and corporations like Patagonia. How do these outdoor adventure stories impact our lives and culture now? (HL) Smout.


      • ENGL 395 - Topics in Literature in English in Counter Traditions
        Credits3-4
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English in an area of "counter traditions" with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Spring 2022, ENGL 395-01: Topics in Literature in English in Counter Traditions: Women's Memoir (3).  For all of American history, the rights of women have been under attack—our right to vote, to pursue education, to own property, to work and have careers, to make decisions about our bodies—and since 2016, rights and securities that have been guaranteed us for decades are back on the chopping block. In this class, we'll read a selection of memoirs by women published between 2016 and 2021 and consider how they're in conversation with the current social, political, economic, and environmental climates in the United States. (HL) Womer.

        Winter 2022, ENGL 395A-01: Topics in Literature in English in Counter Traditions: Malcolm X (3). Prerequisite: Take one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299. Malcolm X was one of the most significant civil and human rights activists in the world, and yet few among us in the United States remember or acknowledge the fullest scope of his legacy. This class will offer an in-depth study of his literary, cultural, political, and religious impact, from his encounters with his contemporaries (Martin Luther King Jr., James Baldwin, Muhammad Ali, John Lewis, Yuri Kochiyama) to his effect on hip hop culture. Texts will include the Autobiography of Malcolm X, speeches by Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr., James Baldwin's The Fire Next Time, and other select primary and secondary sources. (HL) Kharputly.

        Fall 2021, ENGL 395A-01: Topics in Literature in English in Counter Traditions: Unchoreographed Duets: The Drama of August Wilson and Suzan-Lori Parks (3). Prerequisite: Take one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299. While the elastic lyricism of August Wilson's dramas cannot accurately be termed "kitchen sink realism," they—in many significant ways—are worlds separated from Suzan-Lori Parks' experimental productions. These artists reflect the twin engines of post-Brown v. Board black theater as the older extends the efforts of Lorraine Hansberry and the younger refines the strategies of Adrienne Kennedy. Notwithstanding the differences in their creative works, these two playwrights ruled the last two decades of the twentieth century with a thoroughness that is unprecedented in black theater history. The Black Arts Movement may have propelled African American drama to widespread mainstream recognition; however, the string of Pulitzers and New York Drama Critics Circle Awards garnered by Wilson and Parks marks an unmatched degree of acclaim. Gauging their impact on American society between the presidencies of Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, this course will study Wilson's entire oeuvre and all of Parks' dramatic works up until 2006. (HL) Hill.

        Fall 2021, ENGL 395B-01: Topics in Literature in English in Counter Traditions: Asian American Racial Formations (3). Prerequisite: Take one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299. A study of fiction and nonfiction narratives across genre (novels, short stories, poetry, essays, film) to explore racial formations in contemporary Asian American writing. We will examine literary representations of race and racism through the lens of immigration and citizenship, faith and religion, mixed race identity, the model minority myth, the perpetual foreigner syndrome, and transracial adoption. Potential authors include: Ocean Vuong, Cathy Park Hong, Randa Jarrar, Celeste Ng, Viet Thanh Nguyen. (HL) Kharputly.


      • FREN 397 - Séminaire avancé
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteThree courses in French at the 200 level

        The in-depth study of a topic in French literature and/or civilization. Recent offerings include: La Littérature francophone du Maghreb; La littérature Beure; La France sous l'occupation; Les femmes et l'écriture au XVIIe siècle; Les écrivains du XXe siècle et la diversité culturelle; L'affaire Dreyfus. Students are encouraged to use this course for the development of a personal project. May be repeated for degree credit when the topics are different.

        Winter 2022, FREN 397A-01: Séminaire avancé: Heroes, Heroines and Villains in Old French Epic (3). Prerequisites: Three courses at the 200 level. In this course, students will investigate the world of Old French epic, one of the most popular genres of literature in the French Middle Ages. As is the case today with superhero fiction, the epic tales of medieval France were populated with recurring characters with superhuman capabilities, and the narrations became an opportunity to imagine new political realities, explore the consequences of good and bad government, and understand the supernatural and far-away. Originally memorized and sung by professional performers, the epics we will read were eventually written down and have thus survived the centuries because of their immense popularity. Students will encounter the most famous heroes, heroines and villains of Old French epic, as well as a series of other intriguing protagonists, marvelous creatures and objects: queens and princesses of the Far East, dragons, unicorns, flying horses, lions, and magic stones, rings and plants. A part of the course will also be devoted to introducing medieval French language (Old French) and reading small passages in the original. (HL) McCormick.

         


      • HIST 229 - Topics in European History
        FDRHU
        Credits3 credit in fall or winter; 4 in spring

        A course offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in European history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

         


      • HIST 269 - Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History
        FDRHU
        Credits3-4

        A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Spring 2022, HIST 269A-01: Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History: Slavery and Colonialism in the African Diaspora (4).
        The histories, politics, and cultures of various regions have given shape to the global African diaspora, at times producing continuities and at others, points of departure. Two constants, however, are the prevalence of colonialism and slavery, particularly in Africa and the Caribbean. This class will examine the impacts that colonialism and slavery have had on colonized peoples, as well as the linkages between African and Caribbean history, by traveling to Barbados and Martinique—a former British colony and a former French colony. Particular points for consideration include colonial systems of governance, such as direct rule and indirect rule, as well as the contemporary legacies of colonialism and slavery, including movements for reparations. (HU, EXP, GL) Dennie and Kamara.

        Winter 2022, HIST 269A-01: Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History: History of the Civil Rights Movement (3).
        This course will examine the trajectory of the Civil Rights Movement by focusing on particular events, strategies, organizations, and political actors. After identifying the conditions that contributed to the emergence of the Civil Rights Movement, the course will trace the movement from the landmark 1954 Brown v. Board case to the rise of Black Power during the 1970s. The course will conclude by examining the relationship between the Civil Rights Movement and the #BlackLivesMatter movement. (HU) Dennie.

        Winter 2022, HIST 269B-01: Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History: Thugs, Jezebels, and Contemporary Politics (3).
        In the months prior to the 2016 presidential election, race relations in the United States were propelled into the American public consciousness with great force, although race has continually exerted an omnipresent influence on contemporary politics. Beginning with Clarence Thomas's 1991 Supreme Court confirmation hearings, this course will survey how discourse on Black femininity, masculinity, sexuality, and class has impacted American politics from 1991 to the present. Topics for consideration include welfare reform, reproductive justice, mass incarceration, voter suppression, and white nationalism. Readings will also consider how Black activists and Black public figures such as lawyers, journalists, and politicians have responded to and resisted racism and sexism in contemporary politics. (HU) Dennie.

        Winter 2022, HIST 269C-01: Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History: The Indigenous South (3).
        This course is about Indigenous southerners and the region they have long inhabited. It is a chronically broad course that will focus primarily on the history of Indigenous people and nations in the Southeast from the pre-contact period to the present. Comprised of diverse peoples, speaking different languages, and with a range of customs and beliefs, the people of the Native South nevertheless share common cultural traditions, social systems, and histories. In this class will examine the Mississippian mound building civilizations; Native southerners encounters with Europeans; the American Revolution, Civil War, and Jim Crow as seen and experienced in the Native Southeast; and contemporary struggles for Native sovereignty in Virginia. Students will learn about the experiences of Indigenous southerners throughout southern history and in the present; be introduced to the methodologies used by ethnohistorians and in the discipline of Native American and Indigenous Studies that are used to recover Indigenous perspectives and history; develop a final project that explores Indigenous history and erasure in and around Rockbridge County. (HU) Sammons.

        Fall 2021, HIST 269A-01: Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History: Introduction to Black Women's History (3). 
        What happens when American history is narrated by Black women and through Black women's experiences? How might we understand US history if we locate Black women at the center rather than the peripheries? These questions provide the guiding framework for this course. This course will trace African American women's history from slavery to the present. Particular attention will be devoted to Black women's labor, activism, intellectual thought, and cultural productions. We will also consider how race, gender, class, and sexuality have functioned in Black women's lives. (HU) Dennie.


      • LATN 326 - The Poetry of Ovid
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteLATN 202 or instructor consent
        FacultyBenefiel or Carlisle

        Readings from the masterpieces of Ovid's poetry, including one or more of the following: The Metamorphoses (a grand mythological epic), The Fasti (festivals and the Roman calendar), The Heroides (fictional letters written by mythological heroines, Ars Amatoria and Amores (love poetry) and Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto (his poetry from exile). Topic varies by term but course may be taken only once.


      • LIT 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing. Completion of FW FDR requirement or this may vary with the topic

        First-year seminar.


      • LIT 295 - Special Topics in Literature in Translation
        FDRHL
        Credits3-4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FDR FW writing requirement

        A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Spring 2022, LIT 295A-01: Topics: Slavery and Colonialism in the African Diaspora (4). The histories, politics, and cultures of various regions have given shape to the global African diaspora, at times producing continuities and at others, points of departure. Two constants, however, are the prevalence of colonialism and slavery, particularly in Africa and the Caribbean. This class will examine the impacts that colonialism and slavery have had on colonized peoples, as well as the linkages between African and Caribbean history, by traveling to Barbados and Martinique—a former British colony and a former French colony. Particular points for consideration include colonial systems of governance, such as direct rule and indirect rule, as well as the contemporary legacies of colonialism and slavery, including movements for reparations. (HU, EXP, GL) Dennie and Kamara.


      • REL 195 - Special Topics in Religion
        FDRHU
        Credits3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring

        A course offered from time to time in a selected problem or topic in religion. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

         


      • REL 295 - Special Topics in Religion
        FDRHU
        Credits3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        Prerequisitevaries according to the topic

        A course offered from time to time in a selected problem or topic in religion. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Spring 2022, REL 295A-01: Special Topics in Religion: The Bible in America (3).  This course considers the role of the Bible in American life from the early colonial period to the present day. We'll focus on the influence of the Bible in the founding of the United States, biblical interpretation in American social and political debate (slavery, women's suffrage, war, LGBT rights, evolution), legal questions about the Bible in the American public square, and the Bible as a material object in the US. The class will include a trip to the Museum of the Bible in Washington, DC. (HU) Brown and Filler.

        Fall 2021, REL 295A-01: Special Topics in Religion: Religion and Toleration (3). This course considers the virtues and limitations of dialogue and toleration as ways of engaging religious diversity. What do these terms mean, and what might they require of both religious and non-religious people? When might tolerance be a problematic way of responding to religious claims or practices? How are tolerance and intolerance regulated - both within communities and by the state? This course will take up these questions, as well as a variety of theories of interfaith engagement and invitations to religious co-existence in political and cultural conflict. (HU) Filler.

        Fall 2021, REL 295B-01: Special Topics in Religion: Yoga and Tantra (3). While both yoga and tantra have achieved fame and notoriety in the west, their history, philosophy, and cultural background are less well-known. This course considers these two religious technologies that cross the usual boundaries of Hindu, Jain, Buddhist, and even Muslim traditions in South Asia and beyond. We will trace the roots of yoga and tantra, their interconnection, and their modern global manifestations. We will come to see that yoga is far more than what is now used for fitness in the west. (HU) Haskett.


      • SPAN 295 - Special Topics in Conversation
        Credits3 in fall, winter; 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteSPAN 162, 164, or equivalent

        Further development of listening and speaking skills necessary for advanced discussion. Acquisition of both practical and topic-specific vocabulary. Appropriate writing and reading assignments, related to the topic, accompany the primary emphasis on conversational skills. Recent topics include: Hispanic Cinema and La Prensa. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

         


      • SPAN 397 - Literature of Spain Seminar
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. The specific topic will be determined jointly according to student interest and departmental approval. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2022, SPAN 397A-01: Literature of Spain Seminar: Writing the Other and Writing the Self in Early Modern Contact Zones (3). Prerequisites: SPAN 220 & 275. Travel narratives, ethnographic accounts, geographic descriptions, and other "literatures of encounter" became a hallmark of the global early modern period, as new zones of cultural contact proliferated and as inhabitants of and visitors to these spaces communicated their experiences through texts. As this course will explore, such genres have just as much to say about their creators as about the subjects they depict: in writing what was to them "other," authors held a mirror to themselves. We will consider how ancient and medieval literary conventions for describing the "fantastic," the "wondrous," the "exotic," or simply "the other" were transformed to convey new types of cultural encounters brought about by Spain's imperial expansion within the Peninsula, throughout the Mediterranean, and across the Atlantic and Pacific worlds.  Readings will reflect a range of encounters as told by diverse voices, from indigenous perspectives on colonization (Anales de Tlatelolco; Guaman Poma de Ayala's Nueva corónica y buen gobierno), women's accounts of global travel (Catalina de Erauso, La monja alférez), and non-European visitor's depictions of the Peninsula (Abd al-Basit, Viaje a Granada). Canonical literary accounts (Cervantes's "Captive's Tale") and colonizing perspectives (Cabeza de Vaca, Los naufragios) will create space for exploring which voices win out in creating lasting historical narratives of encounters. (HL) Hernández.

        Fall 2021, SPAN 397A-01: Literature of Spain Seminar: Legendary Lives in the Spanish Epic, Ballad, and Theater (3). Prerequisite: SPAN 220 and 275. This course will examine the legendary lives of the male and female protagonists of epic poetry, their later emergence in the popular ballads of the sixteenth century, and finally their portrayal on the stages of early modern theater. This examination will help us understand the way legendary figures are transformed by the expectations of audiences and societies change, the effects of literary genres on characterization, and the impact on legends of the increasing powers of church and state. (HL) Bailey.


      • SPAN 398 - Spanish-American Seminar
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 240 and SPAN 275

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. Recent topics have included "Spanish American Women Writers: From America into the 21st Century," "20th Century Latin America Theater," and "Past, Memory, and Identity in Contemporary Argentina's Cultural Products." May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2022, SPAN 398A-01: Spanish-American Seminar: Representaciones del yo y el espacio autobiográfico (3). Prerequisites: SPAN 240. Este curso examina los recursos que emplean los sujetos autobiográficos para su representación en una serie de relatos, testimonios, y documentales en primera persona. El seminario se centra en algunos aspectos vinculados con la imagen autorial, el mito personal y la escena de escritura y de lectura, así como también analiza nociones teóricas que indagan los nexos entre la autoconfiguración, la identidad y la conciencia de género, de clase y de raza. (HL) Botta.

         


      • WGSS 180 - FS: First-year Seminar
        FDROffered occasionally. Each first-year seminar topic is approved by the Dean of The College and the Committee on Courses and Degrees. Applicability to FDRs and other requirements varies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFirst-year standing

        First-year seminar. Topics vary with term and instructor.

         


      • WGSS 403 - Directed Individual Study
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCumulative grade-point average of at least 3.000, completion of three courses that count towards the WGSS minor, and instructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        A course which permits the student to follow a program of directed reading or research in an area not covered in other courses. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • WGSS 451 - Internship

        (when the internship is at an agency that deals with the arts, history, or other humanistic issues)

        Credits1
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Professional development through an external, on-site internship. Requires at least 45 hours of work over no fewer than four weeks. May be repeated for a maximum of three degree credits toward the university limit of nine credits. Students may only register for one WGSS internship per summer.


  6. Capstone experience (after the completion of all other requirements):
  7.  

    • WGSS 396 - Advanced Seminar in Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteWGSS 120, junior or senior standing, or instructor consent

      This course provides an opportunity for advanced students to explore in detail some aspect of Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies. Specific topics may vary and may be determined, in part, by student interest. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

      Winter 2022, WGSS 396A-01: Gender and the Body (3 credits). Prerequisite: WGSS 120 or permission of the instructor.  This course examines the history of the body, as well as contemporary debates about gender and the body. We will examine how scientists have understood gendered bodies and encoded messages about power and status in these claims. We will also look at the creation of beauty standards and their relationship to structures of race and class. Other topics include reproductive politics, fatphobia, and ideas about desirability, with an eye to understanding how certain bodies - including those of Black, trans, queer, and fat individuals - have been targeted for surveillance and control. Students will gain an enhanced understanding how bodies can be sites of domination and oppression as well as spaces of liberation. Horowitz


    • or another relevant individual study, senior thesis, or honors thesis in the student’s major approved by the program committee.