Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Minor Requirements

2019 - 2020 Catalog

Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies minor

A minor in women's, gender, and sexuality studies requires completion of 21 credits. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.

  1. Introduction: WGSS 120, preferably completed by the end of the sophomore year
  2. Distribution: 15 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from each of the two areas. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Committee approves.
    1. Social and Natural Sciences: BIOL 255; CBSC/PSYC 213, 215, 262, 269; ECON 246, 251; POL 255; 280, and WGSS 296; and when appropriate, ECON 295, POL 292, SOAN 291, WGSS 180, 403 (when topic is social or natural sciences), WGSS 451 (when the internship is at an agency that deals with public policy)
    2. Humanities and other disciplines: ARTH 365; CLAS 210; DANC 240; ENGL 254, 261, 312, 313, 316, 320, 359; HIST 206, 211, 219, 228, 257, 258, 285; LJS 345; PHIL 235, 242, 244, 246, 254; REL 132, 215, 246, 284; SPAN 323; THTR 250; WGSS 220, 295, 310; and, when appropriate, ENGL 250, 293, 299, 392, 393, 394, 395; FREN 331, 397; HIST 229, 269; LATN 326; LIT 180, 220, 295; REL 195, 295; SPAN 295, 397, and 398; WGSS 180, 403 (when topic is in humanities), WGSS 451 (when the internship is at an agency that deals with the arts, history, or other humanistic issues)
  3. Capstone experience (after the completion of all other requirements): WGSS 396 or another relevant individual study, senior thesis, or honors thesis in the student's major approved by the program committee.
  1. Introduction:
  2.  

    • WGSS 120 - Introduction to Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      An interdisciplinary introduction to the academic study of women, gender, and sexuality. We read the work of scholars who are trying to make sense of the complicated ways in which gender intersects with other power structures such as race, class, sexuality, and nationality. The course first introduces several key terms in gender and queer studies including intersectionality, social constructivism, oppression, and heteronormativity. Using these terms, we then further analyze topics such as the family as a social institution, gender in the workplace, beauty norms, gendered violence, the history of feminist and queer activism, and gender and queer identity in immigration law. Assignments encourage students to analyze their other academic pursuits, as well as the non-academic environments in which they live, including thinking critically about their own experiences in contemporary society. The course provides a foundation in feminist analysis for students who wish to complete a minor in Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies. It is also appropriate for students at any level who are seeking a more systematic understanding of how gendered dynamics shape the subjects of their major studies or the practices of their daily lives. 


    • preferably completed by the end of the sophomore year

  3. Distribution:
  4. 15 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from each of the two areas. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the Women’s and Gender Studies Committee approves.

    • Social and Natural Sciences:

       

      • BIOL 255 - Reproductive Physiology
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
        FacultyStaff

        An examination of sex as a biological phenomenon with consideration of the genetic (chromosomal), embryological, endocrine, and neurological bases of sexual development, differentiation, and identity.


      • CBSC 213 - Development of Human Sexuality

        (PSYC 213)

        FDRSS3
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteCBSC 113 or PSYC 113
        FacultyFulcher

        This course examines the fundamentals of the development and practice of sexuality in the human being and the historical, psychological, and psychosocial aspects of human sexuality from childhood to old age. The course covers major theories of the development of sexuality in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian people. Students also explore how sexuality itself may be "constructed" as a result of culture, media, and gender. Primary source material as well as popular media depictions of sexuality are examined. Students engage in the creation of a comprehensive sexual education program which involves contact with parents, teachers, and experts in the field.


      • CBSC 215 - Seminar in Evolutionary Psychology

        (PSYC 215)

        FDRSS3
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteCBSC or PSYC 110, 111, 112, 113, or 114
        FacultyWhiting

        The purpose of this course is to examine evolutionary theory as a means of explaining human behavior. The main premise is that behaviors such as cooperation, aggression, mate selection, and intelligence exist because individuals exhibiting these behaviors were more likely to produce healthy offspring that perpetuated those behaviors (i.e., natural selection). We evaluate the validity of this argument in a number of areas of human behavior and also discuss how culture has shaped our genes. Evolutionary psychology is not an area of psychology, like social psychology or cognitive psychology, but is instead a lens through which all human behavior can be explained. Though it is tempting to engage in "arm chair" application of evolutionary theory to behavior, this is a science course; all arguments must be backed up with data.


      • CBSC 262 - Gender-Role Development

        (PSYC 262)

        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCBSC/PSYC 113, CBSC/PSYC 250 or WGSS 120
        FacultyFulcher

        This course provides the student with an overview of gender-role development: How do children learn to be boys and girls? What role do biological factors play in different behaviors of boys and girls? Does society push boys and girls in different directions? We discuss children's evolving ideas about gender, and what can be done to change these ideas (or whether they need to be changed at all). Through the examination of these questions and issues, the course introduces students to the major theories of gender-role development, the research methods used to measure children's gender-role behaviors and attitudes, and the current research in the field.


      • CBSC 269 - Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

        (PSYC 269)

        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCBSC/PSYC 114 and CBSC/PSYC 250 (as co-req or pre-req) or instructor consent
        FacultyWoodzicka

        This course examines cognitive and affective processes involved in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Causes and social implications of prejudice involving various stigmatized groups (e.g., African-Americans, women, homosexuals, people of low socioeconomic status, overweight individuals) are examined. Participants focus on attitudes and behaviors of both perpetrators and targets of prejudice that likely contribute to and result from social inequality.


      • ECON 246 - Caste at the Intersection of Economy, Religion, and Law
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent. ECON 100 or 101 required only for credit as an elective in the Economics major
        FacultySilwal, Lubin

        Social stratification touches every aspect of life, and South Asia's traditional caste structure is a special case: this highly complex, strictly-adhered-to system has been religiously legitimized and criticized over a 3,000-year history, and is nowadays seen as being at odds with the modern world. Yet it remains a crucial factor in social identity, economic roles, legal status, and religious practice. This course offers a 360-degree survey of caste both historically and in practice today in Nepal. The course addresses four themes, respectively providing for each a combination of historical background, social scientific analysis of the modern situation, and direct field experience for the students.


      • ECON 251 - Women in the Economy
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
        FacultyShester

        Students explore how economic theory and analysis can be applied to examine the multiple roles that women play in our society. In particular, we examine linkages and changes in women's human capital, marriage, fertility, family structure, and occupation and labor supply decisions in the post-World War II era. We also investigate the magnitude and causes of the gender wage gap. We assess how much of the gender wage gap can be explained by education and occupational choice, and how much appears to be due to discrimination. We also learn about {and try to explain} the differences in labor-market outcomes for women with and without children. Finally, we access the causes and consequences of teenage pregnancy and single motherhood.


      • POL 255 - Gender and Politics
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisitePOL 100, 105 or 111 or instructor consent
        FacultyLeBlanc

        This course investigates the gendered terms under which women and men participate in political life. Attention is given to the causes of men's and women's different patterns of participation in politics, to processes that are likely to decrease the inequalities between men's and women's political power, and the processes by which society's gender expectations shape electoral and institutional politics. The different effects of gender on the practice of politics in different nations are compared, with a special emphasis placed on advanced industrial democracies.


      • SOAN 261 - Campus Sex in the Digital Age
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        FacultyGoluboff

        This class explores how the cell phone has impacted hooking up and dating at college, with particular attention to Washington and Lee University as a case study. We discuss the development of campus sexual culture in America and the influence of digital technology on student sociality. Students use open-source digital research tools to analyze data they collect on the mobile apps they use to socialize with each other on campus. As a digital humanities project, students work in groups to post their analyses on the class WordPress site.


      • SOAN 280 - Gender and Sexuality
        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyGoluboff

        An investigation of gender cross culturally. Special consideration is given to the roles of biology, cultural variation, identity, and power in determining patterns of male dominance. Emphasis is placed on changing relationships between men and women in American society.


      • WGSS 296 - Social Science Topics in Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteDepending on the topic, WGSS 120 or instructor consent

        A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme and/or geographic region relevant to the overall understanding of Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies, such as Men and Masculinities. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • and when appropriate,

      • ECON 295 - Special Topics in Economics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisites: Normally ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102 but may vary with topic. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years.

        Course emphasis and prerequisites change from term to term and are announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of nine credits chosen from all special topics in economics courses may be used, with permission of the department head, toward requirements for the economics major.

        Winter 2020, ECON 295A-01: Fishery Economics (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or 101. An examination of how to use economics as a foundation for managing fisheries. Topics include bioeconomic models of fisheries, use of economic incentives such as individual transferable quotas, recreational fishing, subsistence fishing in developing countries, and conflicts among users. Writing assignments consist of policy briefs. Kahn.

        Fall 2019, ECON 295A-01: The Economics of Race (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years. A critical examination of the causes and consequences of racial disparities in valued life-course outcomes in America. More than 50 years have passed since the passage of civil-rights and equal-employment-opportunity legislation in the U.S. Nevertheless, racial gaps persist -- with blacks lagging whites -- on most socioeconomic indicators. The course is divided into four parts: (1) an introduction to the biological and social construction of race; (2) theories to explain racial disparities; (3) an examination of racial disparity in such realms as education, health, wealth, wages, and unemployment; and (4) policies to address racial disparities. In each section of the course, students explore relevant issues through assigned readings, films, and classroom discussion. The course fosters the development and use of critical thinking, effective writing, and oral presentation skills. Student evaluation is based on classroom participation, an examination of concepts discussed, film commentaries, and a term paper. Goldsmith.


      • POL 292 - Topics in Politics and Film
        FDRSS2
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteVary by offering. Open to non-majors and majors of all class years

        This course examines how film and television present political issues and themes. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

         


      • SOAN 291 - Special Topics in Anthropology
        Credits3-4

        A discussion of a series of topics of anthropological concern. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, SOAN 291A-01: American Indian Ethnohistory (3). No prerequisites. One of the major goals of modern ethnohistory is to use historical and anthropological methods to uncover the understandings that non-western peoples have of their own histories. This seminar introduces students to the theoretical and methodological principles of ethnohistorical research and their application to North American Indian peoples. Participants first study American Indian conceptions of time and their relationship to the criteria by which tribal communities selected and comprehended the events comprising their histories. Students then examine how Indian tribes from different parts of North America, including the Southwest, Northeast, Southeast, and Plains interpreted, evaluated, and responded to their encounters with colonial and the United States governments. Markowitz.

        Winter 2020, SOAN 291B-01: Archaeology of Inequality (3). Archaeological evidence indicates that Homo sapiens lived more than 100,000 years in relatively egalitarian bands. Signs of routinized inequality--structured, often hereditary differences in access to resources--appear in several parts of the globe beginning some 10,000 years ago. How did egalitarian people devise and accept or negotiate inequity? How are inequality and struggles against it visible archaeologically in prehistoric and historic eras? We consider these issues on global, national, and local scales. Students read case studies from sites around the world and work with artifacts from the W&L "back campus." The Liberty Hall Academy tract was an academic landscape for a short time (c. 1780s-1803) and a plantation for generations (c. 1804-1860s). Artifacts excavated on the premises provide students opportunity to explore inter-related dynamics of racial, gender, and socio-economic hierarchies. A. Bell

        Spring 2020, SOAN 291-01: Domains of The Dead: Anthropologies of Cemeteries (4). This course teaches students how to think anthropologically about cemeteries, querying them in theory-grounded, systematic, testable ways for information about past and current people's social relations, cultural dispositions, values, beliefs, and aspirations. Assigned readings expose students to key theoretical texts from the anthropology of death and mourning as well as to historical surveys of cemeteries as they vary throughout the United States. Of special interest in the course is the recently documented proliferation of idiosyncratic forms of commemoration diverging considerably from previous centuries of more somber practice. Examples of this florescence and of its more restrained predecessors abound in the Valley of Virginia, and students investigate first-hand a range of cemeteries in Rockbridge, Augusta, and Rockingham Counties. Students record decorative motifs and epitaphs on gravestones as well as objects left on gravesites and work to read them as evidence of cultural expression and change. (SS4) A. Bell.

        Spring 2020, SOAN 291-02: Artifacts, Maps, & Archives: An Ethno-Historic Approach to W&L's Past (3).  Applying interdisciplinary methods to study four centuries of W&L material culture and historic records. We use these items to uncover additional stories about W&L founders, its evolving curriculum, and buildings. We visit multiple collections of art, ceramics, artifacts, and documents on campus, and walk several miles across on- and off-campus historic landscapes, including local graveyards. Students synthesize this material and produce several deliverables: (1) additional historic layers to the online campus map (campusmap.wlu.edu); (2) a poster for the term-ending Spring Festival; and (3) biographical sketches of under-studied members of the W&L community. Rainville.

        Fall 2019, SOAN 291A-01: Topic in Anthropology: Consumer Cultures (3). No prerequisites. Appropriate for all class years. "It is extraordinary to discover that no one knows why people want goods," or so observed a famous pair of authors -- one an anthropologist, the other an economist -- in 1979. What, since then, have anthropology and interrelated disciplines learned about consumer desire? This course considers human interaction with the material world in a variety of cultures, periods, and scales. From socio-cultural and political perspectives, what do consumers hope to accomplish by buying, patronizing, or using products like Barbies, bottled water, French fries, blue jeans, tattoos, and piercings? How does consumerism facilitate claims to social connection, personal identity, and meaning? How do potentially constructive roles of buying "stuff" relate to debt, environmental over-exploitation, hoarding, and the Marie Kondo phenomenon? Bell.


      • WGSS 180 - FS: First-year Seminar
        FDROffered occasionally. Each first-year seminar topic is approved by the Dean of The College and the Committee on Courses and Degrees. Applicability to FDRs and other requirements varies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFirst-year standing

        First-year seminar. Topics vary with term and instructor.


      • WGSS 403 - Directed Individual Study
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCumulative grade-point average of at least 3.000, completion of three courses that count towards the WGSS minor, and instructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        A course which permits the student to follow a program of directed reading or research in an area not covered in other courses. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • WGSS 451 - Internship

        (when the internship is at an agency that deals with public policy)

        Credits1
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Professional development through an external, on-site internship. Requires at least 45 hours of work over no fewer than four weeks. May be repeated for a maximum of three degree credits toward the university limit of nine credits. Students may only register for one WGSS internship per summer.


    • Humanities and other disciplines:

       

      • ARTH 365 - Women, Art, and Empowerment
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyKing

        This seminar explores female artists from the late 18th century through the present, whose depictions of women have directly challenged the value system in art history that has traditionally privileged white heterosexual male artists, audiences, collectors, historians, curators, etc. Lectures, discussions, and research projects address multicultural perspectives and provide a sense of feminism's global import in a current and historical context.


      • CLAS 210 - Sex, Gender and Power in Ancient Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultyDance

        Open to all students without prerequisite. An examination of literature in various genres (poetry, philosophy, drama, and history) in an attempt to understand the diverse ways in which Greeks and Romans conceived of gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality. We also interrogate the power dynamics that underpinned these conceptions. Readings include primary sources from antiquity (e.g., Homer, Euripides, Plato, Plautus, Livy, Ovid) as well as secondary sources that explore sex, gender, and power in both ancient and modern contexts.  The course examines several influential works composed in Greek and Latin between the 8th century BCE and the 1st century CE. Alongside poems and philosophical writings that were originally conceived of as literary projects, we also examine plays, historical works, and even some inscriptions, all of which come down to the present as "literature", although many may not have been conceived as such. The boundaries of "literature" is an ongoing topic of inquiry throughout the term.


      • DANC 240 - Contemporary Modern Dance History
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyDavies

        This course is a study of the manifestations of American modern dance from the beginning of the 20th century to the present. Students explore the relationship between dance and developments in U.S. culture and study the innovators of the art form and their techniques, writings, and art works through readings, video and lectures.


      • ENGL 254 - I Heart Jane: Austen's Fan Cultures and Afterlives
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FDR FW requirement
        FacultyWalle

        In the 20th and 21st centuries, Jane Austen has attained a celebrity that far exceeds the recognition she enjoyed during her lifetime. The fan culture that now surrounds Austen, her spunky heroines, and her swoon-worthy heroes rivals that of Star Wars or Harry Potter. Austen enthusiasts meet for book club, wear Regency costumes, convene for tea, and throw balls with period-appropriate music and dance. All of this mooning over Mr. Darcy, however, could easily be the object of Austen's own satire. Mercilessly lampooning silliness and frivolity, "dear Jane" was more inveterate cynic than hopeless romantic. How, then, did Austen transform from biting social satirist to patron saint of chick lit? Beginning with three of Austen's novels, and then turning to the fan cultures surrounding Pride and Prejudice, this course examines the nature of fandom, especially its propensity to change and adapt the very thing it celebrates. What does it mean to be a fan? Is there such a thing as an "original" or authorial meaning of a text? What do Austen's fan cultures say about both the novels themselves and the society that appropriates them?


      • ENGL 261 - Reading Gender
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyStaff

        A course on using gender as a tool of literary analysis. We study the ways ideas about masculinity and femininity inform and are informed by poetry, short stories, novels, plays, films, and/or pop culture productions. Also includes readings in feminist theory about literary interpretation and about the ways gender intersects with other social categories, including race, ethnicity, sexuality, and class. Historical focus will vary according to professor's areas of interest and expertise. We study novels, poems, stories, and films that engage with what might be considered some major modern myths of gender: popular fairy tales. We focus at length upon the Cinderella and Red Riding Hood stories but also consider versions of several additional tales, always with the goal of analyzing the particular ideas about women and men, girls and boys, femininity and masculinity that both underlie and are produced by specific iterations of these familiar stories.


      • ENGL 312 - Gender, Love, and Marriage in the Middle Ages
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299
        FacultyKao

        A study of the complex nexus of gender, love, and marriage in medieval legal, theological, political, and cultural discourses. Reading an eclectic range of texts--such as romance, hagiography, fabliau, (auto)biography, conduct literature, and drama--we consider questions of desire, masculinity, femininity, and agency, as well as the production and maintenance of gender roles and of emotional bonds within medieval conjugality. Authors include Chaucer, Chretien de Troyes, Heldris of Cornwall, Andreas Capellanus, Margery Kempe, and Christine de Pisan. Readings in Middle English or in translation. No prior knowledge of medieval languages necessary.

         


      • ENGL 313 - Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299
        FacultyKao

        This course considers the primary work on which Chaucer's reputation rests: The Canterbury Tales. We pay sustained attention to Chaucer's Middle English at the beginning of the semester to ease the reading process. Then we travel alongside the Canterbury pilgrims as they tell their tales under the guise of a friendly competition. The Canterbury Tales is frequently read as a commentary on the social divisions in late medieval England, such as the traditional estates, religious professionals and laity, and gender hierarchies. But despite the Tales' professed inclusiveness of the whole of English society, Chaucer nonetheless focuses inordinately on those individuals from the emerging middle classes. Our aim is to approach the Tales from the practices of historicization and theorization; that is, we both examine Chaucer's cultural and historical contexts and consider issues of religion, gender, sexuality, marriage, conduct, class, chivalry, courtly love, community, geography, history, power, spirituality, secularism, traditional authority, and individual experience. Of particular importance are questions of voicing and writing, authorship and readership. Lastly, we think through Chaucer's famous Retraction at the "end" of The Canterbury Tales, as well as Donald R. Howard's trenchant observation that the Tale is "unfinished but complete." What does it mean for the father of literary "Englishness" to end his life's work on the poetic principle of unfulfilled closure and on the image of a society on the move?


      • ENGL 320 - Shakespearean Genres
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299
        FacultyPickett

        In a given term, this course focuses on one or two of the major genres explored by Shakespeare (e.g., histories, tragedies, comedies, tragicomedies/romances, lyric and narrative poetry), in light of Renaissance literary conventions and recent theoretical approaches. Students consider the ways in which Shakespeare's generic experiments are variably inflected by gender, by political considerations, by habitat, and by history.


      • ENGL 359 - Literature by Women of Color
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299
        FacultyMiranda

        This course focuses on the intersection of race and gender as they meet in the lives and identities of contemporary women of color via literature: African-Americans, Native Americans, Chicanas, Asian-Americans, and mixed bloods, or 'mestizas.' Our readings, discussions and writings focus on the work that "coming to voice" does for women of color, and for our larger society and world. Students read a variety of poetry, fiction, and autobiography in order to explore some of the issues most important to and about women of color: identity, histories, diversity, resistance and celebration. Literary analyses-i.e., close readings, explications and interpretations-are key strategies for understanding these readings.


      • HIST 206 - Women and Gender in Modern Europe
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyHorowitz

        This course investigates the history of Europe from the late 18th century to the present day through the lens of women's lives, gender roles, and changing notions of sexuality. We examine how historical events and movements (industrialization, the world wars, etc.) had an impact on women, we look at how ideas about gender shaped historical phenomena, such as imperialism and totalitarianism. We also consider the rise of new ideas about sexuality and the challenge of feminism.


      • HIST 211 - Scandal, Crime, and Spectacle in the 19th Century
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyHorowitz, Walsh

        This course examines the intersection between scandal, crime, and spectacle in 19th-century France and Britain. We discuss the nature of scandals, the connection between scandals and political change, and how scandals and ideas about crime were used to articulate new ideas about class, gender, and sexuality. In addition, this class covers the rise of new theories of criminality in the 19th century and the popular fascination with crime and violence. Crime and scandal also became interwoven into the fabric of the city as sources of urban spectacle. Students are introduced to text analysis and data mining for the humanities.


      • HIST 219 - Seminar: The Age of the Witch Hunts
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteOpen to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. First-years may request instructor consent
        FacultyBrock

        This course introduces students to one of the most fascinating and disturbing events in the history of the Western world: the witch hunts in early-modern Europe and North America. Between 1450 and 1750, more than 100,000 individuals, from Russia to Salem, were prosecuted for the crime of witchcraft. Most were women and more than half were executed. In this course, we examine the political, religious, social, and legal reasons behind the trials, asking why they occurred in Europe when they did and why they finally ended. We also explore, in brief, global witch hunts that still occur today in places like Africa and India, asking how they resemble yet differ from those of the early-modern world.


      • HIST 228 - Women in Russian History
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBidlack

        Students read many accounts by and about Russian women to gain an understanding of how Russian women have been affected by wars, revolutions, and other major events and, simultaneously, how they have been agents of change from the beginnings Russian history up to the present.


      • HIST 257 - History of Women in America, 1609-1870
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultySenechal

        An examination of women's social, political, cultural and economic positions in America through the immediate post-Civil War. Changes in women's education, legal status, position in the family, and participation in the work force with emphasis on the diversity of women's experience, especially the manner in which class and race influenced women's lives. The growth of organized women's rights.


      • HIST 258 - History of Women in America, 1870 to the Present
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultySenechal

        A survey of some of the major topics and themes in American women's lives from the mid-19th century to the present, including domestic and family roles, economic contributions, reproductive experience, education, suffrage, and the emergence of the contemporary feminist movement. The influence on women's roles, behavior, and consciousness by the social and economic changes accompanying industrialization and urbanization and by variations in women's experience caused by differences in race, class, and region.


      • HIST 285 - Seminar: The Yin and Yang of Gender in Late Imperial China (10th-19th centuries)
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBello

        Relations between men and women are the basis of any human society, but the exact nature and interpretation of these relations differ from time to time and from place to place. The concepts of Yin (female) and Yang (male) were integral to the theory and practice of Chinese gender relations during the late imperial period, influencing marriage, medicine and law. This course examines the historical significance of late-imperial gender relations across these, and other, categories from both traditional and modern perspectives.


      • LJS 345 - Mass Atrocity, Human Rights, and International Law
        FDRHU
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing
        FacultyMark Drumbl

        This course is designed to benefit students with an interest in law school and/or international relations and also those with no plans to pursue law school or international relations work but who are keen to catch a view of both of these areas. This interdisciplinary course reflects upon the place of law and justice in societies that have endured or inflicted systemic human-rights violations. Among the examples we study are Germany, the former Yugoslavia, Japan, Czech Republic, Poland, Rwanda, Sudan, Iraq, Uganda, Cambodia, Syria, South Africa, Congo, ISIS, Sierra Leone, and the United States. A related aim is to consider what sorts of legal responses are suitable to deal with perpetrators of mass atrocity. Individuals commit the acts that cumulatively lead to mass atrocity, but the connived nature of the violence implicates questions of collective responsibility. While our instinct may be to prosecute guilty individuals, are other responses more appropriate? What do victims and their families want?


      • REL 132 - God and Goddess in Hinduism
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        This course explores the many ways in which Hindus visualize and talk about the divine and its manifestations in the world through mythic stories, use of images in worship, explanations of the nature of the soul and body in relation to the divine, and the belief in human embodiments of the divine in Hindu holy men and women. Topics include: the religious meanings of masculine and feminine in the divine and human contexts; the idea of local, family, and "chosen" divinities; and differing forms of Hindu devotion for men and women.


      • REL 215 - Female and Male in Western Religious Traditions
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBrown

        An investigation of views about the body, human sexuality, and gender in Western religious traditions, especially Judaism and Christianity, and of the influences of these views both on the religious traditions themselves and on the societies in which they develop. The course focuses on religion and society in antiquity and the Middle Ages, but also considers the continuing influence of religious constructions of the body and sexuality on succeeding generations to the present.


      • REL 246 - Caste at the Intersection of Economy, Religion, and Law
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent. ECON 100 or 101 required only for credit as an elective in the Economics major
        FacultyLubin, Silwal

        Social stratification touches every aspect of life, and South Asia's traditional caste structure is a special case: this highly complex, strictly-adhered-to system has been religiously legitimized and criticized over a 3,000-year history, and is nowadays seen as being at odds with the modern world. Yet it remains a crucial factor in social identity, economic roles, legal status, and religious practice. This course offers a 360-degree survey of caste both historically and in practice today in Nepal. The course addresses four themes, respectively providing for each a combination of historical background, social scientific analysis of the modern situation, and direct field experience for the students. 


      • REL 284 - Gender, Sexuality, and Islam
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyAtanasova

        How have issues of gender and sexuality in Medieval and Modern Islamic societies been debated across the Middle East, South Asia, and the West? Students examine scholarly and public discussions of gender and Islam, and they build a vocabulary in which to talk about women. queer, and intersex history as they concern Muslim societies and their foundational sources in their regional and historical contexts. No prior knowledge of Islam is necessary.


      • SPAN 323 - Golden Age Spanish Women Writers
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275
        FacultyCampbell

        A study of the comedia and the novela corta and the manner in which the secular women writers inscribe themselves within and beyond these genres. Close reading and discussion of representative works that may include the short stories and plays by María de Zayas, Ana Caro, Leonor de Meneses, Mariana de Carvajal, and Angela de Azevedo.


      • THTR 250 - Women in Contemporary Theater
        FDRHA
        Credits3

        This course explores the contemporary theater scene, investigating its plays, playwrights, directors and actors. The representation of women in theatrical art, as well as the unique contributions of contemporary women as artists, theorists and audiences, provides the principal focus of study. Traditional critical and historical approaches to the material are complemented by play reading, play attendance, oral presentations, writing assignments, journal writing and the creation of individual performance pieces.


      • WGSS 220 - 21st-Century Feminism: Where Are We Now?
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyWalle

        Where it used to be considered a liability, the word feminist is now proudly claimed by pop stars and emblazoned on t-shirts. What has changed, and what should we make of this popular feminism? Does it herald a new age of equal rights, or does it threaten to undermine the progress that 20th-century feminists worked so hard to secure? Looking exclusively at texts published after 2000, this course surveys a wide range of feminist issues, including intersectionality, body positivity, sexual assault, trans feminism, popular feminism, feminist "merch", the 2016 election, and the future of feminism.


      • WGSS 235 - The Second Sex: Beauvoir on the Power of Gender

        (PHIL 235)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyVerhage

        Sixty years after its initial publication, The Second Sex is as eye-opening and relevant as ever. Simone de Beauvoir's masterpiece weaves together history, philosophy, economics, biology, and a host of other disciplines to analyze the Western notion of "woman" and to explore the making and the power of gender and sexuality. The Second Sex is an important philosophical and political document about inequality and enforced "otherness." Referring to the history of philosophy, new developments in existential thought, and drawing on extensive interviews with women, Beauvoir synthesizes research about women's bodies and psyches as well as their historic and economic roles.


      • WGSS 242 - Social Inequality and Fair Opportunity

        (PHIL 242)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        An exploration of the different range of opportunities available to various social groups, including racial, ethnic and sexual minorities, women, and the poor. Topics include how to define fair equality of opportunity; the social mechanisms that play a role in expanding and limiting opportunity; legal and group-initiated strategies aimed at effecting fair equality of opportunity and the theoretical foundations of these strategies; as well as an analysis of the concepts of equality, merit and citizenship, and their value to individuals and society


      • WGSS 244 - Feminist Social and Political Philosophy

        (PHIL 244)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        This course critically examines the gender norms that pervade our identities, govern our everyday behavior, and organize our social life. Questions addressed may include: What is gender? In what ways does it affect the quality of women's and men's lives? Is gender difference natural? Is it valuable? Can it contribute to, or interfere with, human flourishing? Can a gendered society be just? What can any of us do to promote good relations among women and men?


      • WGSS 246 - Philosophy of Sex

        (PHIL 246)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        This course explores questions related to contemporary conceptions of sexuality and its proper role in our lives. Questions addressed include: What is the purpose of sex? Are sexual practices subject to normative evaluation on grounds of morality, aesthetics, and/or capacity to promote a flourishing human life? We consider the relation between sex and both intimacy and pleasure, viewed from the perspective of heterosexual women and men, and gay men and lesbians. What are our sexual practices and attitudes toward sex? What should they be like?


      • WGSS 254 - Philosophy of the Family: Beyond Tradition

        (PHIL 254)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        This course considers philosophical issues raised by family as a social institution and as a legal institution. Topics addressed include the social and personal purposes served by the institution of family, the nature of relationships between family members, the various forms that family can take, the scope of family privacy or autonomy, and how family obligations, mutual support, and interdependency affect individual members of families.


      • WGSS 295 - Humanities Topics in Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteDepending on the topic, WGSS 120 or instructor consent

        A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme and/or geographic region relevant to the overall understanding of Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies, such as Hispanic Feminisms. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • and when appropriate:

      • WGSS 210 - Representations of Women, Gender and Sexuality in World Literature

        (LIT 310)

        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement
        FacultyRadulescu

        This course examines a plethora of literary texts chosen from across historical periods from antiquity, through early modern times, to the modern and postmodern era and across several national traditions and cultural landscapes.  Its main intellectual objective is to sensitize students to the ways in which women and gender have been represented in literary texts of various genres and to help them develop specific analytic skills in order to discover and evaluate the interconnections between the treatment of women in society and their artistic reflections in works of literature.


      • and, when appropriate (topic is humanities),

      • ENGL 250 - Medieval and Early Modern British Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyKao

        This course is a survey of English literature from the Early Middle Ages to the Early Modern period. We read works in various genres--verse, drama, and prose--and understand their specific cultural and historical contexts. We also examine select modern film adaptations of canonical works as part of the evolving history of critical reception.


      • ENGL 293 - Topics in American Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3-4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of the FW requirement

        Studies in American literature, supported by attention to historical contexts. Versions of this course may survey several periods or concentrate on a group of works from a short span of time. Students develop their analytical writing skills in a series of short papers. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293A-01: Topics in American Literature: The American West (3). The American West is a land of striking landscapes, beautiful places to visit, such as Yellowstone and Yosemite, and stories that have had a huge impact on the USA and the world, such as Lewis and Clark, the Oregon Trail, Custer's Last Stand, Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, and Cowboy and Indian adventures galore. This course studies some of these Western places, stories, art works, and movies. What has made them so appealing? How have they been used? We study works by authors such as John Steinbeck, Frederic Remington, Willa Cather, Wallace Stegner, and Cormac McCarthy, plus movies with actors like John Wayne, Clint Eastwood, and Brad Pitt to see how Western stories have played out and what is happening now in these contested spaces. (HL) Smout.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293B-01: Topics in American Literature: Literature of the Beat Generation (3). A study of a revolutionary literary movement, focusing on the ways in which cultural and historical context have influenced the composition of and response to literature in the United States. This course examines the writings of several American authors (Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Anne Waldman, Amiri Baraka, Bob Dylan, Gregory Corso, Gary Snyder) active from the mid-1940s through recent decades, loosely grouped together as the Beat Generation. What cultural, literary, historical, and religious influences from the U.S. and other parts of the world have shaped their work? What challenges did their boldly different writings face, and how did their reception change over time? What are their themes? Their notions of style? What have they contributed to American (and world) life and letters? The goal of this course is to lay a strong foundation from which such questions can be richly addressed and answered. (HL) Ball.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293C-01: Topics in American Literature: How We Read (3). What's the difference between reading for class and reading for fun? How does an English professor read a novel? How does Oprah read a novel? Why do we even read novels, anyway? For that matter, why do we join book clubs, post reviews on Goodreads, and add our photos to #bookstagram? What do all those different ways of reading look like, and how do they work? This class examines, analyzes, and practices different ways of reading, from academic study to pleasure reading to book clubs. Over the course of the term, we hone the skills necessary to literary analysis, focusing on close reading, strong arguments, and precise claims and evidence. In addition, we practice writing about what we read for non-academic audiences like Goodreads, Instagram, and friends and family. Because revision is an essential part of the writing process, you have several opportunities to revise your writing. (HL) Bufkin.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293D-01: Topics in American Literature: Toni Morrison (3). This course takes into account the literary, professional, and scholarly career of Nobel Prize winning author Toni Morrison. As a class, we read several of Morrison's works as well as her non-fiction scholarship to better understand the worlds she created in her fiction and the ideas she developed across her career, asking questions about history, representation, style, and identity. Potential works include: The Bluest Eye, Sula, Beloved, Home, Playing in the Dark, and The Origin of Others. Particular attention is paid to Morrison's writing in relation to the changing literary landscape into which she both wrote and left her indelible mark. (HL) Millan.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293E-01: Topics in American Literature: Asian-American Literature (3). A study of literatures by Asian American authors, with a focus on how Asian Americans—broadly and inclusively defined—have transformed the social, political, and cultural landscapes of the United States. With such topics as immigration and refugee politics, racism and xenophobia, exclusion and internment, civil rights activism, the post-9/11 period, and model minority myth, our selected texts (novels, poetry, short stories) present both a historical and an intimate look into the lives of individuals who articulate what it means to identify as Asian American in the modern and contemporary United States. Potential texts include Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior, John Okada's No-No Boy, Nam Le's The Boat, Mohsin Hamid's The Reluctant Fundamentalist, and R. O. Kwon's The Incendiaries. (HL) Kharputly.

        Spring 2020, ENGL 293-01: Topics in American Literature: Business in American Literature and Film (4). In his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith tells a powerful story of the free market as a way to organize our political and economic lives, a story that has governed much of the world ever since. This course studies that story (also called capitalism), considers alternate stories of human economic organization, such as those of American Indian tribes, and sees how these stories have been acted out in American business and society. We study novels, films, short stories, non-fiction essays, autobiographies, advertisements, websites, some big corporations, and some businesses in the Lexington area. Our goal is not to attack American business but to understand its characteristic strengths and weaknesses so we can make the best choices about how to live and work happily in a free-market society. (HL) Smout.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 293A-01: Topics in American Literature: Literature of the Beat Generation (3). A study of a particular movement, focusing on the ways in which cultural and historical context have influenced the composition of and response to literature in the United States. This course examines the writings of such authors as Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Anne Waldman, Bob Dylan, Gregory Corso, and Gary Snyder, who wrote starting in the mid-1940s, continued through later decades, and became loosely known as the Beat Generation. What cultural, literary, historical, and religious influences from the U.S. and other parts of the world have shaped their work? What challenges did their boldly different writings face, and how did their reception change over time? What are their themes? Their notions of style? What have they contributed to American (and world) life and letters? The goal of this course is to lay a strong foundation from which such questions can be richly addressed and answered. (HL) Ball.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 293B-01: Topics in American Literature: African-American Literature and Visual Culture (3). This course examines African-American literature ranging from 18th-century poetry to mid-20th-century novels. As we read texts published across this 200-year period, we study the ways writers engage visual art to portray black identity. By examining literature by Wheatley, Douglass, Jacobs, Washington, DuBois, Grimké, Larsen, Hurston, and Ellison alongside the high art and popular visual forms of their respective historical periods, we also assess how visual culture impacted the formation of the African-American literary tradition. (HL) L. Hill.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 293C-01: Topics in American Literature: The American Short Story (3). A study of the evolution of the short story in America from its roots, both domestic (Poe, Irving, Hawthorne, Melville) and international (Chekhov and Maupassant), tracing the main branches of its development in the 20th and 21st centuries. Among the writers we read: Flannery O'Connor, Joyce Carol Oates, John Cheever, John Updike, Philip Roth, Tobias Woolf, T.C. Boyle, Amy Hempel, Elizabeth Strout, Junot Diaz, Edwidge Danticat, and others. Additionally, we explore more recent permutations of the genre, such as magical realism, new realism, and minimalism. Having gained an appreciation for the history and variety of this distinctly modern genre, we focus our attention on the work of two American masters of the form, contemporaries and erstwhile friends who frequently read and commented on each other's work—Hemingway and Fitzgerald. We see how they were influenced by their predecessors and by each other and how each helped to shape the genre. (HL) Oliver.

         


      • ENGL 299 - Seminar for Prospective Majors
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW composition requirement and at least one course chosen from English courses numbered from 201 to 295

        A study of a topic in literature issuing in a research process and sustained critical writing. Some recent topics have been Detective Fiction; American Indian Literatures; Revenge; and David Thoreau and American Transcendentalism.


      • FREN 331 - Etudes thématiques
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteThree courses at the 200 level

        This course gives students a general knowledge of the evolution of French literature and ideas over the centuries through the study of one main theme. Recent offerings include: L'Exil; Regards sur la ville; Le dépaysement; Le voyage dans la literature française; L'esprit critique au XVIIIe siècle. May be repeated for degree credit if the theme is different.


      • ENGL 392 - Topics in Literature in English before 1700
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English before 1700 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • ENGL 393 - Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English from 1700 to 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 393A-01: Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900: Early African-American Print (3). An examination of the early decades of African-American print culture as a way to explore the larger development of print in the early American republic and through the 19th century. We pay particular attention to the collective development of Black print personas and public discourse as well as to the early African-American novel. We also consider the ways in which print—black type on white pages—served as a metaphor for (re)producing racialization. Possible writers and texts include Phillis Wheatley, Olaudah Equiano, Frederick Douglass' Paper, James McCune Smith, the "Afric-American Picture Gallery", William Wells Brown, and The Garies and Their Friends. There are opportunities for archival research, either through Special Collections or digital databases. (HL) Millan.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 393A-01: Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900: The Global 19th Century (3). This course analyzes the various (inter)national, political, historical, cultural, and ultimately literary impacts of the increasingly interconnected world of the 19th century. Because covering a century in any single location is already a tall order, the course introduces students to thematic connections and ways of reading to inform discussion and research. Using what critic Lisa Lowe calls "the intimacies of four continents" as a foundation, students juxtapose the emergence of European liberalism with ongoing settler colonialism in the Americas, forced Indigenous removal, the enslavement of African people, and trade in Asia. Potential authors and topics include: Equiano, Irving, Apess, Douglass, the Haitian Revolution, racial classification/taxonomy, trade/economy, Latin American wars for independence, The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833, the Spanish-American War, fashion, Chinese indentured labor, Indigenous resistance, modernization, and immigration. (HL) Millan.

         


      • ENGL 394 - Topics in Literature in English since 1900
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English since 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 394A-01: Topics in Literature in English since 1900: American Outdoor Adventure Stories (3). Here in the New World, where Europeans arrived already excited about untouched wilderness waiting to be explored (and willfully blind to the native peoples living here), stories about travel and adventure were popular from the start. This class studies selected stories historically, seeing how the careers of writers like Henry David Thoreau, Mark Twain, and Herman Melville began with travel writings, and how adventure stories since then have developed, contributing to an explosion in extreme sports and outdoor recreation. Other authors may include John Muir, Jack London, Ernest Hemingway, Cormac McCarthy, Hampton Sides, Jon Krakauer, and Cheryl Strayed. We also study contemporary movies like Free Solo and corporations like Patagonia. How do these outdoor adventure stories impact our lives and culture now? (HL) Smout.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 394B-01: Topics in Literature in English since 1900: She Had Some Horses: Native American Women's Literatures 1900-2019 (3). A seminar course with special emphasis on research and discussion. Elizabeth Cook Lynn, Crow Creek Sioux, says that "Art and literature and storytelling are at the epicenter of all that an individual or a nation intends to be. ...a nation which does not tell its own stories cannot be said to be a nation at all." How do Native women writers counter the misrepresentations of Native Americans in familiar narratives like Pocahontas, Sacajawea, or the Land O' Lakes Maiden? This course examines novels, short stories, and poetry by contemporary Native American women authors, addressing racial and gender oppression, reservation and urban life, acculturation, political and social emergence as well as the leadership role of Native American women. Writers may include Erdrich, Silko, Hogan, Tapahonso, Long Soldier, Chrystos, Brant, and Harjo. (HL) Miranda.

         

         


      • ENGL 395 - Topics in Literature in English in Counter Traditions
        Credits3-4
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English in an area of "counter traditions" with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • FREN 397 - Séminaire avancé
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteThree courses in French at the 200 level

        The in-depth study of a topic in French literature and/or civilization. Recent offerings include: La Littérature francophone du Maghreb; La littérature Beure; La France sous l'occupation; Les femmes et l'écriture au XVIIe siècle; Les écrivains du XXe siècle et la diversité culturelle; L'affaire Dreyfus. Students are encouraged to use this course for the development of a personal project. May be repeated for degree credit when the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, FREN 397A-01: Séminaire Avancé : La Femme et L'écriture au XVIIIème Siècle (3). Prerequisites: Three courses in French at the 200 level. A seminar focused primarily on the writings of women of the French enlightenment, including representative genres and issues that galvanized women and influenced the debates of the time. We study literary as well as anthropological texts that expose the status of and discourse on women in 18th-century France and women's own perception of their status and role in a wider socio-cultural and political context. Authors we study include Madame de La Fayette, Françoise de Graffigny, Madame de Tencin, Marie Riccoboni, and Olympe de Gouges. Supplementary texts, in the form of critical literary essays, are also on the reading list. (HL) Kamara.


      • HIST 229 - Topics in European History
        FDRHU
        Credits3 credit in fall or winter; 4 in spring

        A course offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in European history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2019, HIST 229A-01: Topic: Medieval Mystics (3). Mysticism was a fundamental category of devotional experience across the religions of the Middle Ages. Yet to modern observers, mystics can seem bizarre, dangerous, and irrational. What was mystical experience, what could it do? What does it mean to see and hear things when no one else does? And how should moderns with no religious affiliation tell the history of those who experienced the divine entering into human events? Key topics addressed include: science and religion; gender and sexuality; heresy, self-harm, and embodiment; notions of "proof" and authority; and the political weight of mystical experience. (HU) Vise.


      • HIST 269 - Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History
        FDRHU
        Credits3-4

        A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2019, HIST 269A-01: Uncovering W&L History (3). A reading- and writing-intensive research seminar focusing on the African-American past of W&L, from 1749 to 1870, and other colleges. We spend time on archival research and the issues that eastern colleges have dealt with in reclaiming this past. Special attention is given to the slaves bequeathed to Washington College by John Robinson. Students focus on historical methodology and analysis, through the use of primary and secondary research, and write a significant term paper.  (HU) DeLaney.


      • LATN 326 - The Poetry of Ovid
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteLATN 202 or instructor consent
        FacultyBenefiel or Carlisle

        Readings from the masterpieces of Ovid's poetry, including one or more of the following: The Metamorphoses (a grand mythological epic), The Fasti (festivals and the Roman calendar), The Heroides (fictional letters written by mythological heroines, Ars Amatoria and Amores (love poetry) and Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto (his poetry from exile). Topic varies by term but course may be taken only once.


      • LIT 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing. Completion of FW FDR requirement or this may vary with the topic

        First-year seminar.


      • LIT 220 - Modern Chinese Literature in Translation
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement
        FacultyZhu

        This is a survey course to introduce students to the literature of 20th-century China. Through close reading of key literary texts from the 1910s to the present, students explore the social, historical and literary background that gave rise to the texts studied and the ways in which these texts address various issues that China faced at the time. Taught in English, the course presupposes no previous knowledge of China or Chinese culture. In addition to the selected literary texts, the course introduces several feature films that are cinematic adaptations of modern Chinese fiction and explore the complex and dynamic interchange between literary and cinematic language.


      • LIT 295 - Special Topics in Literature in Translation
        FDRHL
        Credits3-4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement

        A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Spring 2020, LIT 295-01: After Namibia: Afro-German Poetics, Activism, and Hip Hop (4). Prerequisites: Completion of FDR FW writing requirement. An examination of the history of race and identity politics in German-speaking cultures, beginning with the German colonialist past in Namibia and the ways in which Afro- and Black Germans, as well as other marginalized persons seek to create a space for their racial identities within a culture that seeks to define race solely as a historical social construct. Our focus is the cultural production and activism of black and brown voices in Germany and how they mediate the concept of Germanness as whiteness and the silence about the atrocities of German colonization. (HL) Merritt.

        Spring 2020, LIT 295-02: Topic: Arab Women Writers (3). Prerequisites: Completion of FDR FW writing requirement. An introduction to Arab women's issues through literary works by modern Arab writers that are available in English translation. Students read fiction, poetry, autobiographies, and short stories by Arab women writers from the Middle East and North Africa. We analyze these works within their social contexts to help students develop a critical understanding of the social, political, and cultural context(s) of these writings, and enhance cultural awareness through lectures, readings, and supplementary materials. (HL) Shehata.

        Fall 2019, LIT 295A-01: Antisemitism in the German Culture (3). Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement. In 1933, the year Adolph Hitler came to power, the total population of Germany consisted of approximately 67 million people. The Jewish population in Germany at that time stood at 525,000 or approximately .75% of the entire population. This course deals primarily with the following question: How is that such a small minority could occupy so much space in the German cultural imagination? This is an interdisciplinary course drawing on political, literary, and theological texts. We begin our study in the 18th century and trace the development of antisemitism in Germany through the eliminationist version of the World War II era. Special emphasis is placed on antisemitism as a global phenomenon with an emphasis on France in the 18th century and at the turn of the 20th century, and the U.S. in the first half of the 20th century. No previous familiarity with the subject matter is necessary. (HL) Youngman.

         


      • REL 195 - Special Topics in Religion
        FDRHU
        Credits3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring

        A course offered from time to time in a selected problem or topic in religion. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Spring 2020, REL 195-01: From Anti-Judaism to Anti-Semitism (3). In this course, we encounter and analyze the forms and histories of anti-Jewishness. The course tracks from Judaeophobia in the ancient world to anti-Semitism in the contemporary world, with a focus on three moments: first, the Mediterranean world at the birth of Christian empire; second, the Holocaust in historical and ideological context; and third, anti-Semitism in America, from Henry Ford's anti-Semitic conspiracy theories to the Pittsburgh Tree of Life shooting. In the process we ask some hard questions. What is the connection between anti-Semitism and racial thought? What is the difference between anti-Semitism and anti-Judaism? How does Christian religion intersect with anti-Semitism? How have Jewish people responded to hostility and attack, and how has suffering and loss been memorialized? (HU) Chalmers.

        Fall 2019, REL 195A-01: Special Topic: Corporeal Religion: The Body in Judaism (3). Bodies matter. This is true for Jewish identity as well, both in terms of traditional practices (such as circumcision and menstrual impurity) and body-related discourses (like the process by which American Jews became racially white). This course explores the traditions and practices of Jewish life, as well as the problems and possibilities of Jewish identities, through a specific focus on the body: how it has been perceived, how it has been targeted for violence, how it has been shaped and formed within Jewish tradition, and how it intersects with race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and religion. (HU) Chalmers.


      • REL 295 - Special Topics in Religion
        FDRHU
        Credits3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        Prerequisitevaries according to the topic

        A course offered from time to time in a selected problem or topic in religion. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, REL 295A-01: Rise of Religion and Fall of Rome (3). Over the first six centuries CE, a disparate assortment of texts from the eastern Mediterranean - eventually known as the New Testament - were written, composed, collected, and became authoritative for communicating a religious identity: Christian. Simultaneously, Jewish communities from Spain to Central Asia went on living their lives, with the communities of Palestine and Babylonia ultimately producing a regulatory literature - the Talmud - that would revolutionize Jewish religion. Neither existed in a vacuum. This is an exploration of some of our earliest and richest opportunities for understanding how Christianity and Judaism became global phenomena. We focus on vibrant local and trans-local narratives: martyrs, magic, the Holy Land, halakha, magicians, and heretics. We travel not only the traditional hunting grounds of this period (Italy, Gaul, and what became northern Europe) but also late Roman Syria, Egypt, Palestine, and Ethiopia. How were the important events in the period relived and rewritten by those who followed, including Iraqi clerics and the first women playwright of the Middle Ages? And what can we learn by rethinking the big questions we ask of this period - of decline, fall, rise, conquest, and religious competition? (HU) Chalmers.


      • SPAN 295 - Special Topics in Conversation
        Credits3 in fall, winter; 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteSPAN 162, 164, or equivalent

        Further development of listening and speaking skills necessary for advanced discussion. Acquisition of both practical and topic-specific vocabulary. Appropriate writing and reading assignments, related to the topic, accompany the primary emphasis on conversational skills. Recent topics include: Hispanic Cinema and La Prensa. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, SPAN 295A-01: Special Topics in Conversation: Vivir Nen Communidad (3). Prerequisite: SPAN 162, 164, or equivalent. ESOL community-based learning component. Counts towards the requirements for the RL major and the LACS minor (with Prof. Botta's permission in advance). Experiential Learning. Further development of listening and speaking skills necessary for advanced discussion. Acquisition of both practical and topic-specific vocabulary. Appropriate writing and reading assignments, related to the topic, accompany the primary emphasis on conversational skills. Class time is devoted primarily to students meeting small groups or as a large group for extensive conversation in order to enhance aural and oral skills and to develop a deeper understanding of migration in the Spanish-speaking/Latinx world, including in Rockbridge County. Assignments require application of all language skills. In 2020, the course has a special emphasis on community-based learning, with each student working 1-2 hours each week using Spanish in different community sectors of Rockbridge County. In addition, class discussions will treat the themes of the students' community-based experiences and of issues and current events of Latinas/os/xs in the U.S. Mayock.


      • SPAN 397 - Peninsular Seminar
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. The specific topic will be determined jointly according to student interest and departmental approval. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, SPAN 397A-01: Peninsular Seminar: Early Modern Spanish Theater: Reading, Writing, and Performing Comedia on Both Sides of the Atlantic. (3). Prerequisites: SPAN 220 and SPAN 275. Much like today's prestige television, the early modern Spanish theatrical genre known as comedia nueva fused popular and elite entertainment, drawing spectators from every level of society into packed playhouses from Madrid to Mexico City. Comedias were not only blockbusters, however, but also bestsellers, with the burgeoning commercial print market circulating play texts far beyond 16th- and 17th-century stage. In this seminar, we explore the comedia as both a literary phenomenon and as a performance practice; as a transatlantic genre penned not only by elite Peninsular men but also by women, creole, mestizo, and indigenous writers; as a medium to transmit imperial ideology from the metropolis to the periphery; and, simultaneously, as a space for playwrights on the margins of society and empire to explore their identities within these systems of power. Course readings place the works of Peninsular figures, including Lope de Vega and Ana Caro, in dialogue with those of their transatlantic counterparts, from the loas of Mexican poet Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz to the Quechua-language comedias of Peruvian playwright Gabriel Centeno de Osma. (HL) Hernández.

        Fall 2019, SPAN 397A-01: Peninsular Seminar: Representaciones de la Guerra Civil Española (3). This course examines the fundamental importance of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) in literary and visual texts of the Franco and contemporary periods of Spain. Through these readings, students come to understand the evolution of often conflicting histories, ideologies, obsessions, and artistic notions surrounding the war itself and its consequences. After a review of the events leading up to the Spanish Civil War and of the prelude to the Second World War, we observe how the themes and issues of the war manifest in fiction, poetry, film, and other visual texts, paying particular attention to the Franco regime, the pact of silence, and the desire to uncover the past in myriad ways. Literature includes works by Federico García Lorca, Jaime Gil de Biedma, Carmen Laforet, Alberto Méndez, and Mercè Rodoreda. Visual texts include posters, newspapers, letters, government documents, documentaries, fictional films, and NO-DO reels from the Franco era. Mayock.


      • SPAN 398 - Spanish-American Seminar
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 240 and SPAN 275

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. Recent topics have included "Spanish American Women Writers: From America into the 21st Century," "20th Century Latin America Theater," and "Past, Memory, and Identity in Contemporary Argentina's Cultural Products." May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2019, SPAN 398A-01 (3): Spanish-American Seminar: La representación del yo en escritos y documentales latinoamericanos. (3). Prerequisites: SPAN 240 and SPAN 275.The course examines the practices of self-representation through the study of literary and non-literary works, oral narratives, and documentaries. In addition to conceptual discussions of how individuals use fictionalized forms of self-portraiture in diverse Latin-American contexts, special attention is paid to issues of memory, subjectivity, self-empowerment, authority, and audience and addressee, among others. Primary texts focus mainly on the 20th and 21th centuries. (HL) Botta.


      • WGSS 180 - FS: First-year Seminar
        FDROffered occasionally. Each first-year seminar topic is approved by the Dean of The College and the Committee on Courses and Degrees. Applicability to FDRs and other requirements varies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFirst-year standing

        First-year seminar. Topics vary with term and instructor.


      • WGSS 403 - Directed Individual Study
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCumulative grade-point average of at least 3.000, completion of three courses that count towards the WGSS minor, and instructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        A course which permits the student to follow a program of directed reading or research in an area not covered in other courses. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • WGSS 451 - Internship

        (when the internship is at an agency that deals with the arts, history, or other humanistic issues)

        Credits1
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Professional development through an external, on-site internship. Requires at least 45 hours of work over no fewer than four weeks. May be repeated for a maximum of three degree credits toward the university limit of nine credits. Students may only register for one WGSS internship per summer.


  5. Capstone experience (after the completion of all other requirements):
  6.  

    • WGSS 396 - Advanced Seminar in Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteWGSS 120, junior or senior standing, or instructor consent

      This course provides an opportunity for advanced students to explore in detail some aspect of Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies. Specific topics may vary and may be determined, in part, by student interest. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • or another relevant individual study, senior thesis, or honors thesis in the student’s major approved by the program committee.