Archaeology Minor Requirements

2022 - 2023 Catalog

Archaeology minor

A minor in archaeology requires completion of six courses as follows. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must complete at least nine credits not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.

1. History/Theory: Either SOAN 206 or ARTH/CLAS 200

2. Methods: One course chosen from CLAS 434; SOAN 210, 211, or, when appropriate and approved in advance, CLAS 295 or a field methods course

3. Distribution: Three courses selected from at least two of the following three areas. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and approved in advance.

a. Natural and Physical Sciences: BIOL 101, 105, 140, 160, 185; CHEM 100, 156, 160; ENGN 178, 260; ENV 250; GEOL 100, 101, 102, 105, 205, 247, 260, 275, 330; PHYS 260

b. Social Sciences: ECON 186, 255; HIST 230, 238; JOUR 266, 338; SOAN 186, 206, 207, 210, 211, 230, 238, 240, 266, 286

c. Humanities: ARTH 146, 170, 200, 245, 246, 288, 343, 347; CLAS 200, 223, 287, 288, 326, 338; ENV 330; HIST 130, 131, 244, 245, 262; REL 223, or when appropriate, CLAS 295

4. A capstone project that culminates in a major research project on a topic proposed by the student that focuses on archaeology. It will take the form of an independent study (3 credits) with a person in the core faculty or approved by the SOAN department chair or archaeology curriculum coordinator. It could also be a senior thesis or honors thesis with similar approval.

  1. History/Theory: Take either
    • SOAN 206 - Archaeology
      FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
      Credits3

      An examination of anthropologically-oriented archaeology. Specific subjects to be considered will include the history of the subdiscipline, theoretical developments, field techniques, substantive contributions for the prehistoric and historic subareas and recent developments in theory and methodology.


    • ARTH 200 - Greek Art & Archaeology

      (CLAS 200 )

      FDRHA Fine Arts Distribution
      Credits3

      Same as CLAS 200. An introduction to ancient Greek art and archaeology. We encounter some of the greatest works of art in human history, as we survey the development of painting, sculpture, architecture, and town planning of the ancient Greeks. We encounter the history of the people behind the objects that they left behind, from the material remains of the Bronze Age palaces and Classical Athenian Acropolis to the world created in the wake of Alexander the Great's conquests. We also consider how we experience the ancient Greek world today through archaeological practice, cultural heritage, and the antiquities trade.


  2. Methods: One course chosen from
    • CLAS 434 - Archaeological Fieldwork in Greece
      Credits4
      Prerequisiteinstructor consent

      An experiential-learning course conducted during eight weeks in the summer from early June to early August. Students participate in an excavation in the Athenian Agora, the civic and commercial center of ancient Athens, and one of the most historic and fruitful archeological sites in the world.


    • SOAN 210 - Field Methods in Archaeology
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      This course introduces students to archaeological field methods through hands-on experience, readings, and fieldtrips. Students study the cultural and natural processes that lead to the patterns we see in the archaeological record. Using the scientific method and current theoretical motivations in anthropological archaeology, students learn how to develop a research design and to implement it with actual field excavation. We visit several field excavation sites in order to experience, first hand, the range of archaeological field methods and research interests currently undertaken by leading archaeologists. Students use the archaeological data to test hypotheses about the sites under consideration and produce a report of their research, which may take the form of a standard archaeological report, an academic poster, or a conference-style presented paper.


    • SOAN 211 - Laboratory Methods in Archaeology
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      This course introduces students to archaeological lab methods through hands-on experience, readings, and fieldtrips. Students process and catalogue archaeological finds ensuring they maintain the archaeological provenience of these materials. Using the scientific method and current theoretical motivations in anthropological archaeology, students learn how to develop and test hypotheses about the site under consideration by analyzing the artifacts they themselves have processed. We visit several archaeology labs in order to experience, first hand, the range of projects and methods currently undertaken by leading archaeologists. Students then use the archaeological data to test their hypotheses and produce a report of their research, which may take the form of a standard archaeological report, an academic poster, or a conference-style presented paper.


    • or, when appropriate, and approved in advance,

    • CLAS 295 - Topics in Classical Civilization

      or a field methods course

      Credits3-4

      Selected subject areas in classical civilization.


  3. Distribution:
  4. Three courses selected from at least two of the following three areas. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and approved in advance.

    • Natural and Physical Sciences:
      • BIOL 101 - Environmental Biology: Endangered Plants of the Appalachians
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4

        Using case studies in plant endangerment as a focal point for understanding ecological and evolutionary processes and the impact of human activities on biodiversity, students gain fundamental insight into their relationship with the living world and the importance of preserving biological diversity through a combination of targeted readings, intensive discussions, and basic research in the field. Field activities take place in regional hotspots of plant endemism and give students experience in applied conservation research.


      • BIOL 105 - Introduction to Behavioral Ecology
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4
        Prerequisiteinstructor consent

        How do animals experience the world? What are animal social systems like? How do animals choose mates, find places to live, decide when to help others? This course for non-majors focuses on both the mechanisms of animal behavior (genes, hormones, sensory systems) and the adaptive value of behavior for survival and reproduction in nature. The laboratory includes field experiments and lab observations that test hypotheses using animals such as salamanders, cows, birds, and humans.


      • BIOL 160 - CSI: W&L
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4

        Same as CHEM 160. This laboratory course is an introduction to the field of forensic science with a focus on the physical, chemical, and biological basis of crime scene evidence. A particular emphasis is on the analysis of trace physical (e.g., glass, soil, fiber, ballistics) and biological (e.g., hair, blood, DNA) evidence and forensic toxicology (e.g., drugs, alcohol, poisons). The laboratory portion of this course provides hands-on opportunities to analyze collected crime scene samples and to utilize some of the commonly used forensic laboratory techniques such as microscopy, chromatography, and spectroscopy. The course also introduces some of the legal aspects associated with collection and analysis of crime-scene evidence.


      • BIOL 185 - Data Science: Visualizing and Exploring Big Data
        Credits3

        We live in the era of big data. Major discoveries in science and medicine are being made by exploring large datasets in novel ways using computational tools. The challenge in the biomedical sciences is the same as in Silicon Valley: knowing what computational tools are right for a project and where to get started when exploring large data sets. In this course, students learn to use R, a popular open-source programming language and data analysis environment, to interactively explore data. Case studies are drawn from across the sciences and medicine. Topics include data visualization, machine learning, image analysis, geospatial analysis, and statistical inference on large data sets. We also emphasize best practices in coding, data handling, and adherence to the principles of reproducible research.


      • CHEM 100 - Modern Descriptive Chemistry
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4

        An elementary study of the structure and reactions of molecules. Laboratory work illustrates some fundamental procedures in chemistry.


      • CHEM 156 - Science in Art
        FDRSC Science, Math, CS Distribution
        Credits3
        Prerequisiteinstructor consent

        This course develops students' fundamental understanding of certain physical, chemical, biological, and geological concepts and utilizes that vocabulary and knowledge to discuss 17th-century Dutch art. The emphasis is on key aspects of optics, light, and chemical bonding needed to understand how a painting works and how art conservators analyze paintings in terms of conservation and authenticity, using techniques such as X-ray radiography, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, infrared microscopy, infrared reflectography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, UV photography, and laser ablation methods. When possible, the course develops modern notions of science with those of the 17th century in order to see how 17th-century science influenced 17th-century art.


      • CHEM 160 - CSI: W&L
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4

        Same as BIOL 160. This laboratory course is an introduction to the field of forensic science with a focus on the physical, chemical, and biological basis of crime scene evidence. A particular emphasis is on the analysis of trace physical (e.g., glass, soil, fiber, ballistics) and biological (e.g., hair, blood, DNA) evidence and forensic toxicology (e.g., drugs, alcohol, poisons). The laboratory portion of this course provides hands-on opportunities to analyze collected crime scene samples and to utilize some of the commonly used forensic laboratory techniques such as microscopy, chromatography, and spectroscopy. The course also introduces some of the legal aspects associated with collection and analysis of crime-scene evidence.


      • ENGN 178 - Introduction to Engineering
        FDRSC Science, Math, CS Distribution
        Credits4

        This course introduces students to basic skills useful to engineers, the engineering design process, and the engineering profession. Students learn various topics of engineering, including engineering disciplines, the role of an engineer in the engineering design process, and engineering ethics. Skills learned in this course include programming and the preparation of engineering drawings. Programming skills are developed using flowcharting and MATLAB. Autodesk Inventor is used to create three-dimensional solid models and engineering drawings. The course culminates in a collaborative design project, allowing students to use their new skills


      • ENGN 260 - Materials Science and Engineering
        Credits3
        PrerequisitePHYS 111 with a grade of C or greater

        Same as PHYS 260. An introduction to solid state materials. A study of the relation between microstructure and the corresponding physical properties for metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites.


      • ENV 250 - Ecology of Place
        Credits4
        Prerequisiteinstructor consent

        Think globally, study locally. This course explores globally significant environmental issues such as biodiversity conservation, sustainable delivery of ecosystem goods and services, and environmental justice, as they are manifested on a local/regional scale. We examine interactions among ethical, ecological, and economic concerns that shape these issues. Students are fully engaged in the development of policy recommendations that could guide relevant decision makers. The course incorporates readings, field trips, films, and discussions with invited experts.


      • GEOL 100 - Dynamic Earth: Introductory Geology with Field Emphasis
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4
        Prerequisitefirst-year or sophomore class standing

        The study of Earth systems, our physical environment, and the processes shaping our planet with special emphasis on field study of the region near Lexington. Topics include: plate tectonics; the materials and structure of the Earth's crust; natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanoes; the origin of landforms; and the concept of deep time. Additional topics, with emphasis varying by instructor, include: climate change; weathering and erosion; water quality and movement; energy resources; geospatial and quantitative data analysis; and the relationship between humans and the environment.


      • GEOL 101 - Dynamic Earth: Introductory Geology
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4

        The study of Earth systems, our physical environment, and the processes shaping our planet. Topics include: plate tectonics; the materials and structure of the Earth's crust; natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanoes; the origin of landforms; and the concept of deep time. Additional topics, with emphasis varying by instructor, include: climate change; weathering and erosion; water quality and movement; energy resources; geospatial and quantitative data analysis; and the relationship between humans and the environment.


      • GEOL 102 - Sustainable Earth: Introductory Environmental Geology
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4

        The study of Earth systems, our physical environment, and the processes shaping our planet with special emphasis on environmental science and sustainability. There is special emphasis on field study of the region near Lexington. Depending on the instructor, various topics include: plate tectonics; the materials and structure of the Earth's crust; climate change; the nature of the Earth's interior; the origin of landforms; weathering and erosion; water quality and movement; natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanoes; energy resources; the concept of deep time; geospatial and quantitative data analysis; and the relationship between humans and the environment.


      • GEOL 105 - Earth Lab
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4

        The primary goal of this course is an in-depth introduction to a particular region or field of geological study for introductory level science students.


      • GEOL 205 - History and Evolution of the Earth
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100, GEOL 101, or GEOL 102

        An introductory examination of the origin and physical evolution of the Earth as inferred from the rock record. Areas of particular emphasis include: (1) the origin of the solar system and differentiation of the planets; (2) the evolution of the terrestrial atmosphere and hydrosphere; (3) explanations for the development of life; (4) organic evolution and interpretations of mass extinctions; (5) the changing configuration of continental blocks and ocean basins by continental drift, seafloor spreading, and plate tectonics; and (6) the growth of continental blocks and their mountain systems.


      • GEOL 247 - Geomorphology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100, GEOL 101, or GEOL 102

        Investigation of earth-surface landforms and processes from maps, aerial photographs, and digital data. Includes numerical analysis and modeling of surface process systems and the deep history of our palimpsest Appalachian landscape. Laboratory activities include identification and interpretation of topography, field measurements of soil, unconsolidated materials, landform shapes, and erosional processes.


      • GEOL 260 - GIS and Remote Sensing
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGeology major or Environmental Studies major or minor; and GEOL 100, GEOL 101, or GEOL 102

        A laboratory course introducing the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing in geological/environmental analyses and decision making. Students use state-of-the-art software with a wide variety of spatial geologic, environmental, economic and topographic data derived from satellites; remote databases and published maps to evaluate geologic conditions; local landscape processes; environmental conditions; and hypothetical land-use cases.


      • GEOL 275 - Introductory Geophysics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100, GEOL 101, or GEOL 102

        A review of the geophysical methods used to study the interior of the Earth, the magnetic field, isostasy, and earthquake seismology. Attention is given to the methods used in geophysics to collect and analyze data. A gravimeter, a magnetometer, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity equipment are used to collect field data. The data, corrections, and interpretations are incorporated into a technical report for each of the four surveys.


      • GEOL 330 - Sedimentation and Stratigraphy
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100, GEOL 101, or GEOL 102

        Properties, origins, and dynamics of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Correlation, organization, and historical interpretation of the sedimentary rock record. Field and laboratory analyses of sedimentary rocks.


    • Social Sciences:
      • ECON 286 - Lakota Land Culture, Economics and History
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or ECON 101

        Same as SOAN 286. This class focuses on the cultural, economic, and historical dimensions of the Lakotas' (Titonwan tawapi ) ties to their lands as expressed in their pre- and post-reservation lifeways. It includes a 10 day field trip to western South Dakota to visit and meet with people in the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations and the Black Hills.


      • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or ECON 101

        The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.


      • HIST 230 - Discovering W&L's Origins Using Historical Archaeology
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits3

        Same as SOAN 230. This course introduces students to the practice of historical archaeology using W&L's Liberty Hall campus and ongoing excavations there as a case study. With archaeological excavation and documentary research as our primary sources of data. we use the methods of these two disciplines to analyze our data using tools from the digital humanities to present our findings. Critically, we explore the range of questions and answers that these data and methods of analysis make possible. Hands-on experience with data collection and analysis is the focus of this course, with students working together in groups deciding how to interpret their findings to a public audience about the university's early history. The final project varies by term but might include a short video documentary. a museum display, or a web page.


      • HIST 238 - Anthropology of American History
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits3

        Same as SOAN 238. This course explores issues within historic American communities that ethnographers often investigate among living groups, including cultural values, religious ideologies, class structures, kinship networks, gender roles, and interethnic relations. Although the communities of interest in this course ceased to exist generations ago, many of their characteristic dynamics are accessible through such means as archaeology, architectural history, and the study of documents. Case studies include early English settlement in Plymouth, Mass.; the 18th-century plantation world of Virginia and South Carolina; the post-Revolutionary Maine frontier and 19th-century California.


      • JOUR 266 - Cross-Cultural Documentary Filmmaking
        Credits3

        The United States is a melting pot of nationalities and cultures. As people move to the U.S. from other countries they go through cross-cultural adaptation, and identity becomes an issue for everyone. Students in this course work in three-person teams to produce five-minute documentaries on cross-cultural adaptation by an ethnic community in our region or by selected international students at Washington and Lee. Students are expected to immerse themselves in learning about the home countries and current communities of their subjects. The course includes instruction in the techniques of documentary film-making, allowing students to develop their writing, storytelling, shooting and editing skills.


      • JOUR 338 - The Documentary
        Credits3
        Prerequisitejunior class standing

        A critical study of the documentary in film and television, with analysis of prominent directors and genres.


      • SOAN 286 - Lakota Land Culture, Economics and History
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or ECON 101

        Same as ECON 286. This class focuses on the cultural, economic, and historical dimensions of the Lakotas' (Titonwan tawapi ) ties to their lands as expressed in their pre- and post-reservation lifeways. It includes a 10 day field trip to western South Dakota to visit and meet with people in the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations and the Black Hills.


      • SOAN 206 - Archaeology
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits3

        An examination of anthropologically-oriented archaeology. Specific subjects to be considered will include the history of the subdiscipline, theoretical developments, field techniques, substantive contributions for the prehistoric and historic subareas and recent developments in theory and methodology.


      • SOAN 207 - Biological Anthropology
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits3

        This course considers the emergence and evolution of Homo sapiens from fossil, archaeological, and genetic evidence. The class focuses on evolutionary mechanisms; selective pressures for key human biological and behavioral patterns, such as bipedalism, intelligence, altruism, learned behavior, and expressive culture; relations among prehuman species; the human diaspora; and modern human diversity, particularly "racial" variation. The course also examines theories from sociobiology and evolutionary psychology about motivations for modern human behaviors.


      • SOAN 210 - Field Methods in Archaeology
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4

        This course introduces students to archaeological field methods through hands-on experience, readings, and fieldtrips. Students study the cultural and natural processes that lead to the patterns we see in the archaeological record. Using the scientific method and current theoretical motivations in anthropological archaeology, students learn how to develop a research design and to implement it with actual field excavation. We visit several field excavation sites in order to experience, first hand, the range of archaeological field methods and research interests currently undertaken by leading archaeologists. Students use the archaeological data to test hypotheses about the sites under consideration and produce a report of their research, which may take the form of a standard archaeological report, an academic poster, or a conference-style presented paper.


      • SOAN 211 - Laboratory Methods in Archaeology
        FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
        Credits4

        This course introduces students to archaeological lab methods through hands-on experience, readings, and fieldtrips. Students process and catalogue archaeological finds ensuring they maintain the archaeological provenience of these materials. Using the scientific method and current theoretical motivations in anthropological archaeology, students learn how to develop and test hypotheses about the site under consideration by analyzing the artifacts they themselves have processed. We visit several archaeology labs in order to experience, first hand, the range of projects and methods currently undertaken by leading archaeologists. Students then use the archaeological data to test their hypotheses and produce a report of their research, which may take the form of a standard archaeological report, an academic poster, or a conference-style presented paper.


      • SOAN 230 - Discovering W&L's Origins Using Historical Archaeology
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits3

        Same as HIST 230. This course introduces students to the practice of historical archaeology using W&L's Liberty Hall campus and ongoing excavations there as a case study. With archaeological excavation and documentary research as our primary sources of data. we use the methods of these two disciplines to analyze our data using tools from the digital humanities to present our findings. Critically, we explore the range of questions and answers that these data and methods of analysis make possible. Hands-on experience with data collection and analysis is the focus of this course, with students working together in groups deciding how to interpret their findings to a public audience about the university's early history. The final project varies by term but might include a short video documentary. a museum display, or a web page.


      • SOAN 238 - Anthropology of American History
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits3

        Same as HIST 238. This course explores issues within historic American communities that ethnographers often investigate among living groups, including cultural values, religious ideologies, class structures, kinship networks, gender roles, and interethnic relations. Although the communities of interest in this course ceased to exist generations ago, many of their characteristic dynamics are accessible through such means as archaeology, architectural history, and the study of documents. Case studies include early English settlement in Plymouth, Massachusetts; the 18th-century plantation world of Virginia and South Carolina; the post-Revolutionary Maine frontier; and 19th-century California.


      • SOAN 240 - Food, Culture, and Society
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits3

        This course explores connections among food, culture, and society. Food has been an essential way that individuals and societies define themselves, especially now in our ever globalizing world, as cultural anthropology continues to be a central discipline guiding this field of study. Students review some of the classic symbolic and structural analyses of gastro-politics. We explore relationships between fast-food/globalized taste vs. the Slow Food Movement/localized taste, and delve into socioeconomic and political practices behind the production and consumption of coffee, milk products, and alcoholic beverages. Students investigate relationships among cooking/eating and race, gender, and sexuality, and discuss community food justice. Opportunities to experience the Rockbridge area food scene are integrated into the syllabus.


      • SOAN 266 - Neighborhoods, Culture, and Poverty
        FDRSS3 Social Science - Group 3 Distribution
        Credits3

        This course examines social-scientific research on the determinants of poverty, crime, and ill health by focusing on neighborhoods as the sites where many of the mechanisms impacting these outcomes operate. In addition to engaging with key readings and participating in seminar discussions, students conduct their own exploratory analyses of neighborhood level processes using a variety of spatial data analysis tools in R.


    • Humanities:
      • ARTH 146 - Introduction to Cultural Heritage and Museum Studies: Problems of Ownership and Curation
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits3

        Cultural heritage objects are powerful artifacts to own, display, and even destroy. But why? This introductory course explores the ways art and cultural heritage objects have been stolen, laundered, purchased, curated, and destroyed in order to express political, religious, and cultural messages. Case studies and current events are studied equally to shed light on practices of looting and iconoclasm. Some of the questions we consider: What is the relationship between art and war? Under what conditions should museums return artifacts to the country/ethnic group from which the artifacts originated? What role do auction houses play in laundering art objects? What nationalist agendas are at work when cultural heritage objects are claimed by modem nation states or terrorist groups?


      • ARTH 170 - Arts of Mesoamerica and the Andes
        FDRHA Fine Arts Distribution
        Credits3

        Survey of the art and architecture of Mesoamerica and the Andes before the arrival of the Europeans, with a focus on indigenous civilizations including the Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca. Art is contextualized in terms of religious, social, political, and economic developments in each region under discussion. The class includes a trip to the Virginia Museum of fine Arts in Richmond or the National Gallery in Washington, D.C.


      • ARTH 200 - Greek Art & Archaeology
        FDRHA Fine Arts Distribution
        Credits3

        Same as CLAS 200. An introduction to ancient Greek art and archaeology. We encounter some of the greatest works of art in human history, as we survey the development of painting, sculpture, architecture, and town planning of the ancient Greeks. We encounter the history of the people behind the objects that they left behind, from the material remains of the Bronze Age palaces and Classical Athenian Acropolis to the world created in the wake of Alexander the Great's conquests. We also consider how we experience the ancient Greek world today through archaeological practice, cultural heritage, and the antiquities trade.


      • ARTH 245 - Ancient Cultures, New Markets: Modern and Contemporary Asian Art
        FDRHA Fine Arts Distribution
        Credits3

        This course examines the art movements of the last one hundred years from India, China, Tibet, and Japan primarily through the lenses of the larger sociopolitical movements that informed much of Asia's cultural discourses: Colonialism, Post-Colonialism, Socialism, Communism, and Feminism. We also address debates concerning non-Western 20th-century art as peripheral to the main canons of Modern and Contemporary art. By the end of the course, students have created a complex picture of Asian art/artists, and have engaged broader concepts of transnationalism, as well as examined the roles of galleries, museums, and auction houses in establishing market value and biases in acquisition practices.


      • ARTH 288 - Chinese Export Porcelain and the China Trade, 1500 to 1900
        FDRHA Fine Arts Distribution
        Credits3

        This course covers the development and history of Chinese export porcelain made for the European and American markets and its role as a commodity in the China Trade. Students examine Chinese export porcelain from several different perspectives, including art history, material culture, and economic history.


      • ARTH 343 - Art and Material Culture of Tibet
        FDRHA Fine Arts Distribution
        Credits3

        Through a chronological presentation of sites and objects, we study Tibet's great artistic movements from the 7th-20th centuries. Our analyses of the art and material culture of Tibet, and its larger cultural zone, has an art historical and historiographic focus. This two-pronged approach encourages students to analyze not only the styles and movements of Tibetan art, but the methods by which this art world has been studied by and simultaneously presented to Western audiences.


      • ARTH 347 - Forget Me Not: Visual Culture of Historic and Religious Memorials
        FDRHA Fine Arts Distribution
        Credits4

        This class analyzes the visual material of memorial sites that shape social identity. Whether simple or elaborate in their construction, these creations allow people the space to connect with and/or honor a person or event from the historic or even mythological past. This global and thematic examination of memorials considers three primary foci: the built environment of a memorial; the performative role of visitors; and the function of memory at these sites.


      • CLAS 200 - Greek Art & Archaeology
        FDRHA Fine Arts Distribution
        Credits3

        Same as ARTH 200. An introduction to ancient Greek art and archaeology. We encounter some of the greatest works of art in human history, as we survey the development of painting, sculpture, architecture, and town planning of the ancient Greeks. We encounter the history of the people behind the objects that they left behind, from the material remains of the Bronze Age palaces and Classical Athenian Acropolis to the world created in the wake of Alexander the Great's conquests. We also consider how we experience the ancient Greek world today through archaeological practice, cultural heritage, and the antiquities trade.


      • CLAS 223 - Ancient Greek Religion
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits3

        Same as REL 223. In this course, we examine the strange and wonderful world of ancient Greek religion, beginning with stories of the gods that all Greeks knew: Homer and Hesiod. We then study religion on the ground, examining how religion functioned at a number of sanctuaries and shrines in Greece. Topics covered in this course include ancient conceptions of the cosmos; the nature of Greek deities and heroes; the distinction between myth and religion; the art and architecture of sanctuaries; ritual performances and festivals; ritual sacrifice; sacred games; oracles; the underworld; sacred mysteries; women and religion; and the socio-political role of Greek ritual practice.


      • CLAS 287 - Supervised Study Abroad: Athens
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits4
        Prerequisiteinstructor consent

        Classics and history of Greece. A survey of the development of art, archaeology, history, and literature in ancient and modern Greece, with an emphasis on the relationship between past and present conceptions of Greek identity.


      • CLAS 288 - Supervised Study Abroad: Rome and Ancient Italy
        FDRHA Fine Arts Distribution
        Credits3-6
        Prerequisiteinstructor consent

        This course traces the growth of Rome and Roman civilization from its modest beginnings to its glory during the Republic and Empire. Lectures and readings prepare students for daily visits to sites, excavations, monuments and museums in Rome and its environs, and to locations in the Bay of Naples area.


      • CLAS 326 - The Trojan War
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits3

        The Trojan War ranks among the greatest tales ever told. But is the story real? In this course, we begin with the literary evidence, including the epics of Homer, as well as contemporary accounts from the Bronze Age Greeks, Hittites, and Egyptians. We then follow the archaeological evidence, from the palaces of mainland Greece to the presumed site of Troy itself. Our search leads not just to the truth that lies behind the destruction of Troy, but reveals a long-lost international community of world superpowers whose cities were nearly all destroyed at the same time that Troy fell, an international cataclysm on a scale never before seen in ancient history.


      • CLAS 338 - Pompeii
        FDRSS4 Social Science - Group 4 Distribution
        Credits3

        The site of ancient Pompeii presents a thriving Roman town of the first century AD, virtually frozen in time by the devastating eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. In this course, we examine Pompeii's archaeological remains-public buildings, domestic architecture, painting, artifacts, inscriptions, and graffiti-in order to reconstruct the life of the town. We also consider religion, games and entertainment, politics, and the structure of Roman society.


      • ENV 330 - Environmental Archaeology
        Credits3
        Prerequisiteinstructor consent

        Long-term sustainability requires that we look not only ahead to the future, but back to the past. How did past societies interact with their environments? How did people in the past respond to environmental challenges? What can we learn from their responses to address the challenges we face today? This class applies a long-term perspective to human environment relationships using approaches drawn from archaeology and the environmental humanities. We focus on three major practices contributing to the environmental challenges of the 21st century - industrial agriculture, fossil fuel extraction, and deforestation - and use archaeology to understand how each of these practices developed over human history. Place-based learning through field trips are key in developing student engagement with environmental archaeological approaches throughout the course.


      • HIST 130 - Latin America: Mayas to Independence
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits3

        An introduction to the Indian and Iberian people active from Florida to California through Central and South America between 1450 and 1750.


      • HIST 131 - Modern Latin America: Túpak Katari to Tupac Shakur
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits3

        A survey of Latin America from the 1781 anticolonial rebellion led by indigenous insurgent Túpak Katari to a globalized present in which Latin American youth listen to Tupac Shakur yet know little of his namesake. Lectures are organized thematically (culture, society, economics, and politics) and chronologically, surveying the historical formation of people and nations in Latin America. Individual countries (especially Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru) provide examples of how local and transnational forces have shaped the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries of North and South America and the Caribbean, and the cultural distinctions and ethnic diversity that characterize a region too often misperceived as homogeneous.


      • HIST 244 - The Art of Command during the American Civil War
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits4
        Prerequisiteinstructor consent

        This seminar examines the role of military decision-making, the factors that shape it and determine its successes and failures, by focusing on four Civil War battles: Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and Wilderness. Extensive reading and writing. Battlefield tours.


      • HIST 245 - The American Civil War
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits3

        The sectional crisis. The election of 1860 and the secession of the southern states. Military strategy and tactics. Weapons, battles, leaders. Life of the common soldier. The politics of war. The economics of growth and destruction. Emancipation. Life behind the lines. Victory and defeat.


      • HIST 262 - The Old South to 1860
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits3

        A study of the making of the Old South. Slavery. Antebellum political, economic, social, and cultural developments. The origins and growth of sectionalism.


      • REL 223 - Ancient Greek Religion
        FDRHU Humanities Distribution
        Credits3

        Same as CLAS 223. In this course, we examine the strange and wonderful world of ancient Greek religion, beginning with stories of the gods that all Greeks knew: Homer and Hesiod. We then study religion on the ground, examining how religion functioned at a number of sanctuaries and shrines in Greece. Topics covered in this course include ancient conceptions of the cosmos; the nature of Greek deities and heroes; the distinction between myth and religion; the art and architecture of sanctuaries; ritual performances and festivals; ritual sacrifice; sacred games; oracles; the underworld; sacred mysteries; women and religion; and the socio-political role of Greek ritual practice.


      • or, when appropriate

      • CLAS 295 - Topics in Classical Civilization
        Credits3-4

        Selected subject areas in classical civilization.


  5. Capstone Experience:
  6. A capstone project that culminates in a major research project on a topic proposed by the student that focuses on archaeology. It will take the form of an independent study (3 credits) with a person in the core faculty or approved by the SOAN department chair or archaeology curriculum coordinator. It could also be a senior thesis or honors thesis with similar approval.