Law, Justice, and Society Minor Requirements

2021 - 2022 Catalog

Law, Justice, and Society minor

A minor in Law, Justice, and Society requires completion of at least 21 credits from seven 3- or 4-credit courses, as follows. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must use at least nine (9) credits not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.

1. Introduction: LJS 101

2. Distribution: Take at least 15 credits from five courses, with at least one from each of the school lists below. No more than one 100-level course may be taken from these lists and at least one course must be at the 300-level. No single course may fulfill more than one of these requirements.

a. College:
ARTH 146
BIOL 160 (CHEM 160)
CLAS 241
ENV 202
HIST 212, 310
JOUR 280, 301, 303, 344, 399 (LAW 242)
LJS 220, 230 (POL 230), 231, 232, 295, 296 (ENGL 296), 345
PHIL 242 (WGSS 242), 245 (POV 245), 247 (POV 247), 252, 254 (WGGS 254), 346, 348
POV 280 (LAW 392)
REL 220 (LAW 220), 222 (LAW 355), 246 (ECON 246), 335 (LAW 315), 381 (LAW 323)
SOAN 245 (POL 245), 246 (POL 246), 253 (POV 253), 268 (POL 268)
and when appropriate and approved in advance by C&D:
ENV 295
JOUR 295
MRST 110
PHIL 395
POV 295, 296

b. Williams School:
ACCT 256, 304, 358, 359
BUS 135, 346, 348, 349
ECON 246 (REL 246), 281
LJS 230 (POL 230), 232
POL 230 (LJS 230), 233, 236, 245 (SOAN 245), 246 (SOAN 246), 268 (SOAN 268), 342, 385, 466
and when appropriate and approved in advance by C&D:
POL 180, 295, 380

c. Law School:
JOUR 399 (LAW 242); POV 280 (LAW 392); REL 220 (LAW 220), REL 222 (LAW 355), REL 335 (LAW 315), REL 381 (LAW 323); and when appropriate and approved in advance by C&D, LJS 295.
Law courses available for the LJS 295 option are LAW 201, 203, 212, 221, 222, 228, 237, 252, 255, 256, 263, 264, 266, 269, 271, 284, 289, 293, 304, 306, 307, 316, 320, 331, 335, 340, 371, 383, 391, 393, 412, 430

3. Capstone: After completion of all other requirements for the minor, take one of the following: LJS 395 or 396

  1. Introduction:
    • LJS 101 - Introduction to Law, Justice, and Society
      FDRSS2
      Credits3
      FacultyBelmont, J. Youngman

      Limited to juniors, sophomores, and first-years. An introductory seminar providing a broad, historically grounded foundation in concepts and frameworks of law, along with basic familiarity with a range of forms of law in practice. Beginning with general questions regarding the nature of law, students then move to a survey of American law, focusing on direct student engagement with landmark cases. The seminar concludes with attention to law in international and comparative settings. 


  2. Distribution:
  3. Take at least 15 credits from five courses, with at least one from each of the school lists below. No more than one 100-level course may be taken from these lists and at least one course must be at the 300-level. No single course may fulfill more than one of these requirements.

    • College:
      • ARTH 146 - Introduction to Cultural Heritage and Museum Studies: Problems of Ownership and Curation
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyKerin

        Cultural heritage objects are powerful artifacts to own, display, and even destroy. But why? This introductory course explores the ways art and cultural heritage objects have been stolen, laundered, purchased, curated, and destroyed in order to express political, religious, and cultural messages. Case studies and current events are studied equally to shed light on practices of looting and iconoclasm. Some of the questions we consider: What is the relationship between art and war? Under what conditions should museums return artifacts to the country/ethnic group from which the artifacts originated? What role do auction houses play in laundering art objects? What nationalist agendas are at work when cultural heritage objects are claimed by modem nation states or terrorist groups?


      • BIOL 160 - CSI: W&L

        (CHEM 160)

        FDRSL
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteNo prerequisites. Appropriate for non-science majors. Additional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term
        FacultyLaRiviere, Watson

        This laboratory course is an introduction to the field of forensic science with a focus on the physical, chemical, and biological basis of crime scene evidence. A particular emphasis is on the analysis of trace physical (e.g., glass, soil, fiber, ballistics) and biological (e.g., hair, blood, DNA) evidence and forensic toxicology (e.g., drugs, alcohol, poisons). The laboratory portion of this course provides "hands-on" opportunities to analyze collected crime scene samples and to utilize some of the commonly used forensic laboratory techniques such as microscopy, chromatography, and spectroscopy. The course also introduces some of the legal aspects associated with collection and analysis of crime-scene evidence. Laboratory course.


      • CLAS 241 - Law, Litigation & Justice in the Ancient World
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCrotty

        This course studies justice and law in the ancient world by looking at Greek and Roman philosophical texts about the nature of justice and law, and by considering actual legal cases from the ancient world. The course aims to show how litigation and theory mutually correct and inform one another, while also showing the inherent and continuing interest of ancient thought about law and justice. Students hear lectures, engage in in-class discussion, participate in an on-line discussion, moderated by the instructor, and write two research papers.


      • ENV 202 - Society and Natural Resources
        FDRSS1
        Credits3
        Prerequisiteor corequisite: ENV 110. Restricted to ENV majors or minors, or others by instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        A foundation in the natural sciences for environmental studies students, this course emphasizes understanding how socio-economic conditions are studied to inform and shape environmental policy. Local, regional, and global environmental case studies are considered.


      • HIST 212 - Crime and Punishment in Medieval and Early Modern Europe
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyVise

        An exploration of the history of crime, law enforcement, and punishment during the period of 1200-1650. Our central project is to investigate the deep problems of writing history from a paucity of very biased sources: the criminal records of a world of the past. We begin with the central historical questions: What counted as criminal when, who defined it, and with what authority? What could count as proof of guilt? What constituted acceptable punishment (torture, imprisonment, spectacle executions, penance) and how did this change over time? What role did politics, religion, class, gender, or marginal status play?


      • HIST 310 - Seminar: Speech and Censorship in the Middle Ages
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyVise

        What is censorship, where does it happen, and why? To most U.S. Americans, the Middle Ages is an era known for Inquisition, book burning, and the brutal silencing of political and religious dissent. Yet, compared to more modern censoring institutions, the institutions of medieval Europe held much weaker powers of enforcement, different motives for censoring, and ambiguous technologies to do so. What and who could censor (or be censored) in a society without the printing press? Among other topics, we cover the public vs. private spheres; artistic liberty; religious vs. political concerns; gender; and the role of and limitations upon the modern historian investigating a censored past.


      • JOUR 280 - Covering Courts and the Law
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteAt least sophomore standing. Appropriate for non-majors
        FacultyLocy

        Courthouses make the best beats by providing a window on what is important to the American people. This course introduces students to the U.S. court system, its players, language and impact on the public at large. Students learn how to identify newsworthy legal stories, read court documents, and make sense of them in order to write clear, compelling, fair and accurate news stories for mass audiences.


      • JOUR 301 - Law and Communications
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteJunior standing
        FacultyAbah

        An examination of the development of First Amendment jurisprudence, the law of defamation, privacy, access, free press-fair trial, journalists' privilege, obscenity and pornography. The case study approach is used, but the emphasis is on the principles that underlie the landmark cases. This course can serve as an introduction to and preparation for further studies in communications law and/or the legal system in general.


      • JOUR 303 - Covering Great Trials in History: The Impact of the Press and Public on Justice
        FDRHU
        Credits4
        FacultyLocy

        From the Salem Witch Trials and the Lindbergh Baby kidnapping to the Charles Manson Family and O.J. Simpson, Americans have long been fascinated by crime and punishment. Rich or poor, admired or scorned, defendants in high-profile trials captivate the public because they illuminate our potential for good and evil by revealing our hopes, dreams, and fears at a particular time in history. Often in dramatic fashion, trials expose society's weaknesses by dissecting the violent tendencies and obsessions of the people we thought were worthy of our respect or our fear. But does this obsession with the law serve the greater good? Are prosecutors playing on the public's fears? Are judges doing enough to ensure fair trials? Are defense attorneys serving their clients, or themselves? Does the press, in sensational, simplistic coverage, do more harm than good? And is the public becoming disillusioned with the American legal system? This course examines these issues by placing great trials in their context in history and exploring the complexities of the conflict between the freedom of the press and the ideal of a fair trial.


      • JOUR 344 - Ethics of Journalism
        Credits3
        PrerequisitePOL 203 and at least junior standing. Appropriate for nonmajors
        FacultyColón

        A study of the moral issues arising from the practice of modern journalism and communications. Includes examination of philosophical and theoretical foundations of ethics, the place and role of journalism in the larger society, and moral choices in the newsroom. Topics include: First Amendment freedoms, privacy, confidentiality of sources, conflicts of interest, cooperation with law enforcement, free press/fair trial, photojournalism, and issues of accountability.


      • JOUR 399 - Contemporary Problems in Law and Journalism

        (LAW 242)

        Credits3
        PrerequisiteJOUR 301 and instructor consent. Enrollment limited
        FacultyAbah, Murchison

        A seminar devoted to the study of issues on the frontier of developments in law and journalism. Issues to be addressed include limits on the dignitary torts of privacy and emotional distress; limitations on public availability of governmental information; the impact of new technology on communications law; proposals for reform of libel law; and the role of reporters, editors and legal counsel in the news process.


      • LJS 220 - The Legal Profession
        Credits4
        FacultyLaw Faculty

        In recent decades, the percentage of civil and criminal suits in the U.S. which actually go to trial has dropped to about two percent. Yet most popular conceptions of the legal profession remain fixated on the drama of trials, as portrayed in films, on television, and in novels. What is legal practice actually like, for most attorneys, most of the time? This intensive seminar is designed for those who are curious about the legal profession and wish to know more about its inner workings, perhaps before committing themselves to post-graduate legal education. It introduces students to the fundamentals of legal reasoning and analysis, legal research, and legal writing, as well as contemporary issues and concerns facing the profession in a time of profound transition. Students engage in a series of practical exercises designed to mimic the tasks assigned to first-year associates at a law firm, and the seminar culminates with students' oral arguments on a motion hearing for which they have researched and drafted legal briefs.


      • LJS 230 - Separation of Powers in the U.S. Constitution

        (POL 230)

        FDRSS2
        Credits4
        FacultyMurchison

        This course probes the origins, development, advantages, and disadvantages of the tripartite structure of the federal government, beginning with an examination of the background and text of Articles I, II, and III of the U.S. Constitution. We analyze structural explanations provided in the Federalist Papers, along with Classical and Enlightenment sources addressing the nature of political power, the problem of faction, the role of checks and balances, and the purpose of separated functions. In-depth analyses of leading U.S. Supreme Court decisions trace evolving conceptions of legislative. executive. and judicial powers along with attention to the relevance of war and economic crisis to the authority and function of each branch. In discussions of landmark decisions, students compare the legal thought of a number of Justices--John Marshall, William Howard Taft, Robert Jackson, William Brennan, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, and Antonin Scalia. We trace the creation of the so-called "fourth branch" of government--the administrative state-- and examine whether this "branch" can be reconciled with ideas of representative democracy and constitutional text. Students prepare and deliver two oral arguments based on assigned cases and write an appellate brief on a separation-of-powers topic.


      • LJS 231 - Introduction to Jury Advocacy
        Credits1
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyBelmont

        Introduction to the jury system, federal rules of evidence, and trial practice. Participants are introduced to the legal, practical, and policy implications of jury advocacy in the United States, and put that learning into practice through role plays as both witness and advocate. Members of the intercollegiate mock-trial team are selected from those who complete the courses successfully.


      • LJS 232 - Civil Rights and the U.S. Department of Justice's Civil Rights Division
        FDRSS2
        Credits4
        FacultySimpson and DeLaney

        Designed for students with an interest in law school and/or an interest in the history of civil rights. An exploration of civil rights in the United States from the post-reconstruction period, civil rights from an activists' perspective, the Department of Justice's Civil Rights Division, and civil litigation. The course includes a close examination of the work of the Civil Rights Division's Special Litigation Section which was instrumental in police misconduct matters involving, for example, the Ferguson, Missouri, and Baltimore, Maryland, police departments. We also examine the potential impact of former Attorney General Jeff Sessions' final memo regarding consent decrees and how it will affect investigations of police departments.


      • LJS 295 - Topics in Law and Legal Studies
        Credits2-4
        PrerequisiteJunior or Senior class standing. instructor consent, and approval by application at go.wlu.edu/app-ugr-to-law.pdf

        Courses available for credit include seminars and upper-level electives, but excludes all first-year courses, Constitutional Law, Evidence, clinics, practica, and externships.


      • LJS 345 - Mass Atrocity, Human Rights, and International Law
        FDRHU
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing
        FacultyMark Drumbl

        This course is designed to benefit students with an interest in law school and/or international relations and also those with no plans to pursue law school or international relations work but who are keen to catch a view of both of these areas. This interdisciplinary course reflects upon the place of law and justice in societies that have endured or inflicted systemic human-rights violations. Among the examples we study are Germany, the former Yugoslavia, Japan, Czech Republic, Poland, Rwanda, Sudan, Iraq, Uganda, Cambodia, Syria, South Africa, Congo, ISIS, Sierra Leone, and the United States. A related aim is to consider what sorts of legal responses are suitable to deal with perpetrators of mass atrocity. Individuals commit the acts that cumulatively lead to mass atrocity, but the connived nature of the violence implicates questions of collective responsibility. While our instinct may be to prosecute guilty individuals, are other responses more appropriate? What do victims and their families want?


      • PHIL 242 - Social Inequality and Fair Opportunity

        (WGSS 242)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        An exploration of the different range of opportunities available to various social groups, including racial, ethnic and sexual minorities, women, and the poor. Topics include how to define fair equality of opportunity; the social mechanisms that play a role in expanding and limiting opportunity; legal and group-initiated strategies aimed at effecting fair equality of opportunity and the theoretical foundations of these strategies; as well as an analysis of the concepts of equality, merit and citizenship, and their value to individuals and society.


      • PHIL 245 - Poverty, Dignity, and Human Rights

        (POV 245)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyPickett

        Is severe poverty a human rights violation? This course examines that question and others by means of an investigation of the main philosophical and religious debates about human rights. More broadly, the course provides students with the opportunity to examine our duties (individually and collectively) to those said to suffer from any human rights abuse. Questions considered include: Are human rights universal or culturally specific? What (if anything) grounds human rights? Are religious justifications of rights permissible in a pluralistic world? Is dignity a useful concept for defending and/or discerning human rights? Do we only have liberty rights (to be free of mistreatment) or do we also have welfare rights (to claim certain positive treatment from others)? What are the practical (moral, political. and legal) implications of identifying severe poverty as a human rights violation?


      • PHIL 247 - Medicine, Research, and Poverty

        (POV 247)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyTaylor

        This seminar introduces students to central ethical issues in the provision of medical care and the conduct of medical research in the context of poverty. Specific topics include medical research on prisoners and the indigent; ancillary care obligations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); meeting the standard of care in LMICs; access to essential medicines; allocation of scarce medical resources; and compensated donation for organs or tissues.


      • PHIL 252 - Philosophy of Law
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        An examination of topics in the philosophy of law, such as the concepts of a law and of a legal system; Natural Law theory; legal positivist and legal realist theories of law; the nature of the relationship between law, morality, and religion; civil disobedience; rights in the U.S. Constitution; freedom of speech and pornography; abortion and the right to privacy; punishment and the death penalty; and different forms of legal liability. Readings include United States Supreme Court opinions.


      • PHIL 254 - Philosophy of the Family: Beyond Tradition

        (WGSS 254)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBell

        This course considers philosophical issues raised by family as a social institution and as a legal institution. Topics addressed include the social and personal purposes served by the institution of family, the nature of relationships between family members, the various forms that family can take, the scope of family privacy or autonomy, and how family obligations, mutual support, and interdependency affect individual members of families.


      • PHIL 346 - Medical Ethics
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyTaylor

        An examination of the issues arising out of the human impact of modern biomedical research and practice. Specific issues are selected from among the following: abortion, contraception, death and dying, experimentation/research, genetics, in vitro fertilization, intellectual and developmental disabilities, public health/community medicine, science/technology, transplantation and patients' rights.


      • PHIL 348 - Legal Ethics
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        An examination of the issues associated with lawyers' roles in society and their impact upon and obligations to the client, the court, and the legal profession. The course also addresses questions of the role and function of law and the adversary system.


      • POV 280 - Poverty Law

        (LAW 392)

        Credits3
        FacultyShaughnessy

        Historical and contemporary policy debates about poverty in the United States. Topics include the constitutional treatment of poverty, as well as the legal and policy treatment of questions of access to specific social goods, such as housing, health care, education, and legal services. Coverage of those topics include a look at the federalism dimensions of the legal approach to poverty in the United States. We also examine the intersection of the criminal justice system and poverty and touch on international perspectives on poverty.


      • REL 220 - Whose Law? Pluralism, Conflict, and Justice

        (LAW 220)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        Society is made up of schools, corporations, religions, guilds, associations, tribes, etc., each defined by a set of more-or-less formal rules that apply in various ways depending on the status of each member. Individuals are thus subject to overlapping obligations and claims, so authorities often come into conflict. This is legal pluralism. This seminar explores the various ways in which such interactions can play out in a range of social, religious, and political environments, and how they can affect people of different statuses differently. Examples range from the Roman empire, the Middle East and South Asia, past and present, to the modern United States and Europe. In each case, we examine the ways in which legal status is defined in relation to the state, religious community, ethnicity or race, and social class. Given different, overlapping, conflicting claims to authority, rights, and obligations, how is justice to be defined, and how can it be served?


      • REL 222 - Law and Religion

        (LAW 355)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        Drawing on examples from diverse periods and legal cultures, this seminar addresses "law" and "religion" as two realms of life that have much shared history and continue to intersect in the modern world. Several important topics in comparative law and jurisprudence are covered, including authority and legitimacy, the relation between custom and statute, legal pluralism, church-state relations, and competing models of constitutional secularism. A selective survey of legal systems and practices rooted in particular religious traditions is followed by an examination of how secular legal systems conceptualize religion and balance the protection of religious freedom with their standards of equity and neutrality.


      • REL 246 - Caste at the Intersection of Economy, Religion, and Law

        (ECON 246)

        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent. ECON 100 or 101 required only for credit as an elective in the Economics major
        FacultyLubin, Silwal

        Social stratification touches every aspect of life, and South Asia's traditional caste structure is a special case: this highly complex, strictly-adhered-to system has been religiously legitimized and criticized over a 3,000-year history, and is nowadays seen as being at odds with the modern world. Yet it remains a crucial factor in social identity, economic roles, legal status, and religious practice. This course offers a 360-degree survey of caste both historically and in practice today in Nepal. The course addresses four themes, respectively providing for each a combination of historical background, social scientific analysis of the modern situation, and direct field experience for the students. 


      • REL 335 - Hindu Law in Theory and Practice

        (LAW 315)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        India produced one of the oldest legal systems in the world — one that offers some surprising contrasts with modern assumptions about the nature and scope of the law. Combining ethical and ritual obligations alongside rules for criminal and civil litigation, it was intended to cover every aspect of life, from personal habits to political institutions. The course begins with the ancient codes, Indian political theory, and documents from everyday legal practice in medieval times. The second half of the course begins with colonial-era British attempts to codify Hindu law; Hindu personal law in modern India; and the controversy over religion and secularism in the courts today, including the constitutional definition of "Hindu;" attempts to legislate against disapproved religious practices; and disputes over sacred spaces. We close with comparisons with legal reasoning about religion in America, Israel, and England, based on court cases.


      • REL 381 - Islamic Law in Society

        (LAW 323)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyAtanasova

        This seminar introduces students to the Islamic understanding of shari'a ("Path," "law") and its role in Muslim culture, history, and society. To be examined are: the key sources of law in the Qur'an and the model of the Prophet Muhammad, the early development of Islamic legal theories and institutions, the roles of these institutions in everyday life, and the struggle to re-imagine Islamic law and its place in contemporary Muslim communities. Case studies include the nature of political institutions, the rights and roles of women, and Islamic economics, courtroom procedure and the standing of shari'a in American courts.


      • SOAN 245 - European Politics and Society

        (POL 245)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyJasiewicz

        A comparative analysis of European political systems and social institutions. The course covers the established democracies of western and northern Europe, the new democracies of southern and east-central Europe, and the post-Communist regimes in eastern and southeastern Europe. Mechanisms of European integration are also discussed with attention focused on institutions such as European Union, NATO, OSCE, and Council of Europe.


      • SOAN 246 - Post-Communism and New Democracies

        (POL 246)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyJasiewicz

        A comparative analysis of transition from Communism in the countries of the former Soviet bloc. Cases of successful and unsuccessful transitions to civil society, pluralist democracy, and market economy are examined. The comparative framework includes analysis of transition from non-Communist authoritarianism and democratic consolidation in selected countries of Latin America, the Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and South Africa.


      • SOAN 253 - Narrating Our Stories: Culture, Society, and Identity

        (POL 253)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyGoluboff

        Taught at Augusta Correctional Center with an equal number of W&L and incarcerated students. Use insights from sociology, anthropology, and the humanities, students uncover how cultural metaphors, socioeconomic inequalities, and global realities inform and shape our identities and experiences. By reading different story-telling formats, we work towards recognizing how the ways we tell our stories impact our ability to see new outcomes and reshape cultural scenarios for ourselves, our families, and our communities. We utilize the Inside-Out Model for class instruction and assignments.


      • SOAN 268 - Migration, Identity, and Conflict

        (POL 268)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSOAN 102, POV 101, or POL 105
        FacultyEastwood

        This course focuses on the complex relationship between migration, political institutions, group identities, and inter-group conflict. The course is a hybrid of a seminar and research lab in which students (a) read some of the key social-scientific literature on these subjects, and (b) conduct team-based research making use of existing survey data about the integration of migrant populations into various polities.


      • and, when appropriate and approved in advance by C&D:

      • ENV 295 - Special Topics in Environmental Studies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENV 110 or BIOL 111

        This course examines special topics in environmental studies, such as ecotourism, the environment and development, local environmental issues, values and the environment, global fisheries, global climate change, tropical deforestation and similar topics of importance, which could change from year to year. This is a research-intensive course where the student would be expected to write a significant paper, either individually or as part of a group, of sufficient quality to be made useful to the scholarly and policy communities. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

         


      • JOUR 295 - Topics in Journalism and Mass Communications
        Credits1-4

        Study of a selected topic in journalism or mass communications. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Appropriate for non-majors.

        Fall 2021, JOUR 295A-01: Topics in Journalism and Mass Communications: Studio Production (3). From Ariana Grande's "Musical Genre Challenge" with Jimmy Fallon to Trevor Noah's "The Daily Social Distancing Show," much of our favorite content today flows out of the studio and onto our digital devices. Learning to produce programming and distribute it across platforms and formats can be a valuable skill set. This course will give students hands-on experience in the Reid Hall television studio and online to produce content for brands, academics, non-profits, and peer audiences. They will also engage with industry professionals virtually and will develop skills researching, interviewing, and writing for the medium. (Experiential Learning - EXP) C. Artwick.


      • MRST 110 - Medieval and Renaissance Culture: Humanities
        FDRHU
        Credits3

        An introduction to the interdisciplinary study of the Medieval and Renaissance periods through the study of a particular topic. Recent studies: Elizabethan England, and Life and Death in Dante's Florence.


      • PHIL 395 - Seminar in History of Philosophy or Major Figures
        FDRHU
        Credits3 credits in fall-winter-spring, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteUsually one course in philosophy other than PHIL 170. Varies by topic

        An intensive and critical study of selected issues or major figures in philosophy. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • POV 295 - Child Abuse and Neglect Seminar
        Credits2
        FacultyShaughnessy

        This seminar examines the response of the legal system to issues of child abuse and neglect. Attempts by courts and legislators to define abuse and neglect are reviewed and critiqued. The seminar also explores the legal framework which governs state intervention to protect children from abuse and neglect. Attention is paid to both state and federal law, including the federal constitutional issues which arise in many child abuse and neglect proceedings. Issues relating to the professional responsibilities of lawyers involved in abuse and neglect proceedings are examined.


      • POV 296 - Special Topics in Poverty Studies
        Credits4

        An intensive, in-depth examination of particular thinkers, approaches, policies or debates in the field of poverty and human capability studies.

        Spring 2020, POV 296-01: Special Topics in Poverty Studies: Justice and Mercy: Philosophical and Religious Perspectives (4). Prerequisite: POV 101. This interdisciplinary community-based seminar takes place at Augusta Correctional Center in Craigsville, Virginia (approximately 35 miles from Lexington), a level-3 (out of 6) medium-security state prison. W&L undergraduates attend class with inmates who are pursuing higher education while in custody at the center. Our focus is mainly on questions related to justice and forgiveness as they relate to governmental/political injustices and atrocities (e.g., the Holocaust, white supremacy, colonialism). (HU) Howard Pickett.


    • Williams School
      • ACCT 256 - Federal Tax Policy and Planning in Today's World
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteACCT 100
        FacultyBovay

        This course promotes thoughtful discussion and research of current topics in U.S. tax policy and planning. After an intensive introduction to basic federal tax concepts, each student writes a paper on a current federal tax topic.


      • ACCT 304 - Anatomy of a Fraud
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteACCT 100 or 202
        FacultyM. Hess

        This course examines the phenomena of financial statement fraud and discusses some of the key forensic accounting concepts and skills used to address this problem. Drawing on historical cases of financial statement fraud as well as the first-hand experience of the instructor, we search for the answers to questions such as: What causes executives to "cook the books"? What factors contribute to fraud? What can be done to prevent and detect it? How have regulations changed the landscape of corporate misconduct? What role do auditors, lawyers, employees, the media, and other stakeholders play?


      • ACCT 358 - Individual Income Taxation and Financial Planning
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteACCT 100 or 201, and at least junior standing
        FacultyBovay

        This course focuses on the tax and non-tax factors to consider when managing personal/family financial affairs. Topics include tax-subsidized savings and investment vehicles, deductions, and credits for individuals and families, executive compensation and fringe benefits, real estate ownership, and intergenerational giving.


      • ACCT 359 - Taxation of Business Entities and Special Topics in Taxation
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteACCT 358 and at least junior standing
        FacultyBovay

        This course begins by establishing a basic understanding of income tax laws as they relate to C corporations and flow-through entities (e.g., partnerships, s-corporations, limited liability corporations). The course includes modules on specialized tax topics such as international taxation, state and local taxation, taxation of investments, accounting for income taxes, and taxation of property.


      • BUS 135 - Amateurism and the NCAA: A For-Profit Enterprise in a Not-For-Profit Environment
        Credits4
        FacultyCowins

        A discussion of the primary regulatory body of college sports, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, and its effectiveness as a governance mechanism. Over the course of the term, we examine the following: 1) history and structure of the NCAA; 2) interactions between Division I men's basketball and football, specifically, as revenue-generating sports and the non-profit institutions within which they operate; 3) present and past legal challenges that threaten to alter--or have altered--the relationship between the NCAA and member colleges; 4) externalities that manifest as a result of the influence of athletic departments on certain university campuses; and, 5) educational, physical/mental health, and financial prospects for athletes, regardless of their transition to the professional ranks.


      • BUS 346 - Foundations of Business Law: Accounting Focus
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteAt least junior standing. Preference to ACCT, BSADM, or JMCB during the first round of registration. Students may not take both this course and BUS 348
        FacultyYoungman

        An introduction to the law governing the relations between individuals and businesses in commerce, with a focus on legal concepts tested by the CPA exam and recommended for students who plan to take that exam or pursue a career in accounting. Topics include the law governing torts, contracts, sales of goods under the Uniform Commercial Code, agency, the formation and operation of business associations, government regulation of business, and legal ethics. Assignments apply legal theories and legal ethics to actual business disputes and hypothetical situations.


      • BUS 348 - Foundations in Business Law
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteAt least junior standing. Preference to BSADM, ACCT, or JMCB majors OR ENTR minors during the first round of registration. Students may not take both this course and BUS 346
        FacultyYoungman

        An introduction to the law governing the relations between individuals and businesses in commerce, with a focus on exploring issues faced by both established businesses as well as innovation-driven startups. Topics are selected from the law governing business torts, contracts, products liability, intellectual property, employment law, and government regulation of business. Additional selected topics may be chosen in accordance with the interest of course participants. Assignments apply legal theories and legal ethics to actual business disputes and hypothetical situations.


      • BUS 349 - Negotiation and Dispute Resolution in a Business Environment
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteAt least sophomore standing. Preference to BSADM, ACCT, or JMCB majors, or LJS minors, during first round of registration
        FacultyYoungman

        This course is designed to give students the abilities to negotiate successfully in a commercial environment and to create business solutions when a problem or dispute arises. Lectures, written materials, group projects, video, and role-play are utilized to explore the various theories of negotiation and types of dispute resolution, and to equip students with practical skills for forming and preserving business relationships and resolving business disputes as they occur.


      • ECON 246 - Caste at the Intersection of Economy, Religion, and Law

        (REL 246)

        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent. ECON 100 or 101 required only for credit as an elective in the Economics major
        FacultySilwal, Lubin

        Social stratification touches every aspect of life, and South Asia's traditional caste structure is a special case: this highly complex, strictly-adhered-to system has been religiously legitimized and criticized over a 3,000-year history, and is nowadays seen as being at odds with the modern world. Yet it remains a crucial factor in social identity, economic roles, legal status, and religious practice. This course offers a 360-degree survey of caste both historically and in practice today in Nepal. The course addresses four themes, respectively providing for each a combination of historical background, social scientific analysis of the modern situation, and direct field experience for the students.


      • ECON 281 - Comparative Institutional Economics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisite: ECON 100 or 101.

        FacultyGrajzl

        Institutions such as laws, the political system, and cultural norms embed all social activity. They structure economic, political, and social interaction and as such play a central role in facilitating (or hindering) economic development. This course's objective is to explore from a broad perspective how institutions affect economic performance, what the determinants of institutions are, and how institutions evolve. We study examples from the existing capitalist economies, the developing and transition countries, as well as the more distant history. Because the study of institutions is necessarily an interdisciplinary endeavor, the course combines the approach of economics with the insights from law, political science, history, and sociology.


      • LJS 230 - Separation of Powers in the U.S. Constitution

        (POL 230)

        FDRSS2
        Credits4
        FacultyMurchison

        This course probes the origins, development, advantages, and disadvantages of the tripartite structure of the federal government, beginning with an examination of the background and text of Articles I, II, and III of the U.S. Constitution. We analyze structural explanations provided in the Federalist Papers, along with Classical and Enlightenment sources addressing the nature of political power, the problem of faction, the role of checks and balances, and the purpose of separated functions. In-depth analyses of leading U.S. Supreme Court decisions trace evolving conceptions of legislative. executive. and judicial powers along with attention to the relevance of war and economic crisis to the authority and function of each branch. In discussions of landmark decisions, students compare the legal thought of a number of Justices--John Marshall, William Howard Taft, Robert Jackson, William Brennan, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, and Antonin Scalia. We trace the creation of the so-called "fourth branch" of government--the administrative state-- and examine whether this "branch" can be reconciled with ideas of representative democracy and constitutional text. Students prepare and deliver two oral arguments based on assigned cases and write an appellate brief on a separation-of-powers topic.


      • LJS 232 - Civil Rights and the U.S. Department of Justice's Civil Rights Division
        FDRSS2
        Credits4
        FacultySimpson and DeLaney

        Designed for students with an interest in law school and/or an interest in the history of civil rights. An exploration of civil rights in the United States from the post-reconstruction period, civil rights from an activists' perspective, the Department of Justice's Civil Rights Division, and civil litigation. The course includes a close examination of the work of the Civil Rights Division's Special Litigation Section which was instrumental in police misconduct matters involving, for example, the Ferguson, Missouri, and Baltimore, Maryland, police departments. We also examine the potential impact of former Attorney General Jeff Sessions' final memo regarding consent decrees and how it will affect investigations of police departments.


      • POL 230 - Separation of Powers in the U.S. Constitution

        (LJS 230)

        FDRSS2
        Credits4
        FacultyMurchison

        This course probes the origins, development, advantages, and disadvantages of the tripartite structure of the federal government, beginning with an examination of the background and text of Articles I, II, and III of the U.S. Constitution. We analyze structural explanations provided in the Federalist Papers, along with Classical and Enlightenment sources addressing the nature of political power, the problem of faction, the role of checks and balances, and the purpose of separated functions. In-depth analyses of leading U.S. Supreme Court decisions trace evolving conceptions of legislative. executive. and judicial powers along with attention to the relevance of war and economic crisis to the authority and function of each branch. In discussions of landmark decisions, students compare the legal thought of a number of Justices--John Marshall, William Howard Taft, Robert Jackson, William Brennan, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, and Antonin Scalia. We trace the creation of the so-called "fourth branch" of government--the administrative state-- and examine whether this "branch" can be reconciled with ideas of representative democracy and constitutional text. Students prepare and deliver two oral arguments based on assigned cases and write an appellate brief on a separation-of-powers topic.


      • POL 233 - Environmental Policy and Law
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101, or POL 100
        FacultyHarris

        A study of major environmental laws and the history of their enactment and implementation. Discusses different theoretical approaches from law, ethics, politics, and economics. Reviews significant case law and the legal context. Emphasis is on domestic policy with some attention to international law and treaties.


      • POL 236 - The American Supreme Court and Constitutional Law
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisitePOL 100
        FacultyStaff

        A survey of the development of American constitutional law and a study of the role of the Supreme Court as both a political institution and principal expositor of the Constitution. 


      • POL 245 - European Politics and Society

        (SOAN 245)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyJasiewicz

        A comparative analysis of European political systems and social institutions. The course covers the established democracies of western and northern Europe, the new democracies of southern and east-central Europe, and the post-Communist regimes in eastern and southeastern Europe. Mechanisms of European integration are also discussed with attention focused on institutions such as European Union, NATO, OSCE, and Council of Europe.


      • POL 246 - Post-Communism and New Democracies

        (SOAN 246)

        FDRSS4 as sociology only
        Credits3
        FacultyJasiewicz

        A comparative analysis of transition from Communism in the countries of the former Soviet bloc. Cases of successful and unsuccessful transitions to civil society, pluralist democracy, and market economy are examined. The comparative framework includes analysis of transition from non-Communist authoritarianism and democratic consolidation in selected countries of Latin America, the Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and South Africa.


      • POL 268 - Migration, Identity, and Conflict

        (SOAN 268)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSOAN 102, POV 101, or POL 105
        FacultyEastwood

        This course focuses on the complex relationship between migration, political institutions, group identities, and inter-group conflict. The course is a hybrid of a seminar and research lab in which students (a) read some of the key social-scientific literature on these subjects, and (b) conduct team-based research making use of existing survey data about the integration of migrant populations into various polities.


      • POL 342 - Seminar: Law and the Judicial Process
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisitePOL 100 or POL 111, or instructor consent
        FacultyHarris

        A survey of legal theories and the problems of reconciling such theories with the realities of administering a legal system. The course draws upon readings from literature, philosophy, legal scholarship, and political science. Topics include the nature of law and justice, constitutionalism, the role and power of courts and judges, and the function of a legal system.


      • POL 385 - Seminar: Freedom
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisitePOL 111
        FacultyGray

        An examination of differing conceptions of political and individual freedom in the modern world. We explore the political thought of thinkers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Stuart Mill, Friedrich Nietzsche, Michel Foucault, and Emma Goldman. Students analyze the meaning of freedom through novels and/or short stories, including the work of authors such as Jonathan Franzen and Franz Kafka. Key questions include the meaning and ends of freedom, its conditions, and connections between personal and political articulations of freedom.


      • POL 466 - Washington Term Program
        Credits6
        PrerequisiteGrade-point average of 3.000 overall and in politics courses; POL 100, 105, or 111. Competitive selection process each October
        FacultyAlexander

        The Washington Term Program aims to enlarge students' understanding of national politics and governance. Combining academic study with practical experience in the setting of a government office, think tank, or other organization in Washington, it affords deeper insight into the processes and problems of government at the national level. A member of the politics faculty is the resident director, supervising students enrolled in this program while they are in Washington, D.C.


      • and, when appropriate and approved in advance by C&D:

      • POL 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFirst-Year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-Year class standing only

        First-year seminar.


      • POL 295 - Special Topics in American Politics
        FDRSS2
        Credits3 in fall and winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteMay vary with topic

        A seminar in political science for students at the introductory or intermediate level. Topic, hour, and instructor are announced prior to registration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

         


      • POL 380 - Seminar in Global Politics
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteNormally POL 105 or instructor consent, though prerequisite may vary with topic. Open to majors and non-majors of all classes. Meets the global politics field requirement in the politics major

        Examination of selected topics dealing with international and comparative politics. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

         


    • Law School

      Law courses available for the LJS 295 option are LAW 203, 212, 221, 222, 228, 237, 252, 255, 256, 261, 263, 266, 269, 271, 284, 289, 293, 304, 306, 307, 316, 320, 331, 335, 340, 371, 383, 391, 393, 416, 430

      • JOUR 399 - Contemporary Problems in Law and Journalism

        (LAW 242)

        Credits3
        PrerequisiteJOUR 301 and instructor consent. Enrollment limited
        FacultyAbah, Murchison

        A seminar devoted to the study of issues on the frontier of developments in law and journalism. Issues to be addressed include limits on the dignitary torts of privacy and emotional distress; limitations on public availability of governmental information; the impact of new technology on communications law; proposals for reform of libel law; and the role of reporters, editors and legal counsel in the news process.


      • POV 280 - Poverty Law

        (LAW 392)

        Credits3
        FacultyShaughnessy

        Historical and contemporary policy debates about poverty in the United States. Topics include the constitutional treatment of poverty, as well as the legal and policy treatment of questions of access to specific social goods, such as housing, health care, education, and legal services. Coverage of those topics include a look at the federalism dimensions of the legal approach to poverty in the United States. We also examine the intersection of the criminal justice system and poverty and touch on international perspectives on poverty.


      • REL 220 - Whose Law? Pluralism, Conflict, and Justice

        (LAW 220)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        Society is made up of schools, corporations, religions, guilds, associations, tribes, etc., each defined by a set of more-or-less formal rules that apply in various ways depending on the status of each member. Individuals are thus subject to overlapping obligations and claims, so authorities often come into conflict. This is legal pluralism. This seminar explores the various ways in which such interactions can play out in a range of social, religious, and political environments, and how they can affect people of different statuses differently. Examples range from the Roman empire, the Middle East and South Asia, past and present, to the modern United States and Europe. In each case, we examine the ways in which legal status is defined in relation to the state, religious community, ethnicity or race, and social class. Given different, overlapping, conflicting claims to authority, rights, and obligations, how is justice to be defined, and how can it be served?


      • REL 222 - Law and Religion

        (LAW 355)

        FDRSS4
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        Drawing on examples from diverse periods and legal cultures, this seminar addresses "law" and "religion" as two realms of life that have much shared history and continue to intersect in the modern world. Several important topics in comparative law and jurisprudence are covered, including authority and legitimacy, the relation between custom and statute, legal pluralism, church-state relations, and competing models of constitutional secularism. A selective survey of legal systems and practices rooted in particular religious traditions is followed by an examination of how secular legal systems conceptualize religion and balance the protection of religious freedom with their standards of equity and neutrality.


      • REL 335 - Hindu Law in Theory and Practice

        (LAW 315)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        India produced one of the oldest legal systems in the world — one that offers some surprising contrasts with modern assumptions about the nature and scope of the law. Combining ethical and ritual obligations alongside rules for criminal and civil litigation, it was intended to cover every aspect of life, from personal habits to political institutions. The course begins with the ancient codes, Indian political theory, and documents from everyday legal practice in medieval times. The second half of the course begins with colonial-era British attempts to codify Hindu law; Hindu personal law in modern India; and the controversy over religion and secularism in the courts today, including the constitutional definition of "Hindu;" attempts to legislate against disapproved religious practices; and disputes over sacred spaces. We close with comparisons with legal reasoning about religion in America, Israel, and England, based on court cases.


      • REL 381 - Islamic Law in Society

        (LAW 323)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyAtanasova

        This seminar introduces students to the Islamic understanding of shari'a ("Path," "law") and its role in Muslim culture, history, and society. To be examined are: the key sources of law in the Qur'an and the model of the Prophet Muhammad, the early development of Islamic legal theories and institutions, the roles of these institutions in everyday life, and the struggle to re-imagine Islamic law and its place in contemporary Muslim communities. Case studies include the nature of political institutions, the rights and roles of women, and Islamic economics, courtroom procedure and the standing of shari'a in American courts.


      • and, when appropriate and approved in advance by C&D:

      • LJS 295 - Topics in Law and Legal Studies
        Credits2-4
        PrerequisiteJunior or Senior class standing. instructor consent, and approval by application at go.wlu.edu/app-ugr-to-law.pdf

        Courses available for credit include seminars and upper-level electives, but excludes all first-year courses, Constitutional Law, Evidence, clinics, practica, and externships.

         


      • Law courses available for the LJS 295 option are LAW 203, 212, 221, 222, 228, 237, 252, 255, 256, 261, 263, 266, 269, 271, 284, 293, 304, 306, 307, 316, 320, 331, 335, 340, 371, 383, 391, 393, 416, 430

  4. Capstone:
  5. After completion of all other requirements for the minor, take one of the following:

    • LJS 395 - Law, Justice, and Society Research Capstone
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteLJS 101, instructor consent, and declared as a LJS minor
      FacultyStaff

      This capstone builds upon the foundations developed in LJS 101 and the courses taken as electives for the LJS minor, emphasizing interdisciplinary exchange and education. It incorporates peer-to-peer learning, including opportunities for students to educate each other on topics and issues from their selected research topics and major disciplines. The central element is a significant independent research project. This project is carried out with continual mentoring by a faculty member. Students document their research in a formal paper and in an oral presentation summarizing their research results.


    • LJS 396 - Law, Justice, and Society Experiential Capstone: The Legal Clinical Experience
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteLJS 101, instructor consent, and declared as a LJS minor
      FacultyStaff

      A capstone building upon the foundations developed in LJS 101 and the courses taken as electives for the LJS minor. The central element is participation within or alongside one or more of the Washington and Lee Law School clinics, each of which provides direct legal services to low-income persons in Virginia or West Virginia. The work is carried out with continual mentoring by faculty and third-year law students. Students document and reflect upon their work in writing throughout the term and submit a final oral and written presentation summarizing and reflecting on their experience.