LACS Minor Requirements

2021 - 2022 Catalog

Latin American and Caribbean Studies minor

A minor in Latin American and Caribbean studies may complement either a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree, and requires completion of at least 21 credits of LACS and related courses. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must use at least nine credits that are not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.

  1. Introduction: LACS 101
  2. Distribution: 9 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from two of the three areas. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the program head approves in advance.
    1. Literature: LACS 256 (LIT 256), LIT 259; SPAN 240, 398 and all SPAN numbered between 340 and 359; and, if appropriate and approved in advance, ENGL 262, 350, 351, 394; FREN 344; and LIT 180, 295; PORT 403
    2. Art and Humanities: ARTH 170, 271, 274, 276, 376, 378; HIST 130, 131, 233, 236, 337, 366; SPAN 212; and, if appropriate and approved in advance, FREN 280, HIST 269, 395; SPAN 296
    3. Social Sciences: POL 247; SOAN 250, 263, 264; and, if appropriate and approved in advance, ECON 255, 280, 295, 356; POL 215, 380, 381; SOAN 268, 277, 285, 290, 291
  3. Related: 6 credits from the following or from any course not used above in 2. Distribution: ECON 259; LACS 195, 257, 421, 422, 423, 451, 452, 453, 454; SPAN 201, 216, 270, 290, 308; and if appropriate and approved in advance, BUS 305, 337, 347,390; DANC 215; ECON 288; SOAN 286, SPAN 295, 308, 392
  4. Capstone experience (typically after completion of other program courses): LACS 396

Students must complete the Foundation and Distribution (FL) language requirement in Spanish, French or Portuguese and students are also strongly encouraged to pursue advanced coursework in one or more of the appropriate languages. Students should also take advantage of opportunities that will offer firsthand knowledge of the target culture(s) through formal study abroad, internships, or individual research. Various departments, for example, periodically offer study abroad programs in Latin America, including Costa Rica, Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil. In addition to W&L and independent study abroad opportunities, the program also facilitates internship placement information.

  1. Introduction:
  2.  

    • LACS 101 - Introduction to Latin American and Caribbean Studies
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      A multidisciplinary, introductory course designed to familiarize students with the pertinent issues that determine or affect the concept of identity in Latin American and Caribbean societies through a study of their geography, history, politics, economics, literature, and culture. The purpose of the course is to provide a framework or overview to enhance understanding in the students' future courses in particular disciplines and specific areas of Latin American and Caribbean study.


  3. Distribution:
  4. 9 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from two of the three areas.

    • The following may count towards the total count of 9 credits:

      Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the program head approves in advance.

      • LACS 195 - Special Topics in Latin American and Caribbean Studies
        FDRdesignation varies with topic, as approved in advance
        Credits3 or 4

        A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme relevant to the overall understanding of Latin America and the Caribbean region, such as Hispanic Feminisms, the Indigenous Americas, or Shifting Borders, among others. As an introductory seminar, topics are selected with the purpose in mind to present the student with a broad, regional view within the scope of a restricted focus or medium. May be repeated for credit if the topics are different.


      • LACS 257 - Multiculturalism in Latin America: The Case of Brazil
        FDRHL
        Credits4
        FacultyPinto-Bailey

        This seminar studies Brazil as an example of a multicultural society. Students examine the meaning of multiculturalism and related concepts of identity, heterogeneity, and Eurocentrism, not only in regard to the Brazilian context, but also, comparatively, to that of US culture. The course focuses on the social dynamics that have engaged Brazilians of different backgrounds, marked by differences of gender, ethnicity, and class, and on how multiculturalism and the ensuing conflicts have continuously shaped and reshaped individual subjectivities and national identity. Some of the key issues to be addressed in class are: Brazil's ethnic formation; myths of national identity; class and racial relations; and women in Brazilian society. Readings for the class include novels, short stories, poetry, and testimonial/diary


      • LACS 421 - Interdisciplinary Research
        Credits1
        PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor
        FacultyStaff

        Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.


      • LACS 422 - Interdisciplinary Research
        Credits2
        PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor
        FacultyStaff

        Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.


      • LACS 423 - Interdisciplinary Research
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor
        FacultyStaff

        Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.


      • Literature:

         

        • LACS 256 - Trans-American Identity: Images from the Americas
          FDRHL
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
          FacultyStaff

          Counts toward the literature distribution requirement for the Latin American and Caribbean Studies Program. A multi-genre survey of representative literary works from the Americas, defined as those regions that encompass Latin American and Caribbean cultures. In particular the course uses an interdisciplinary approach to show how exemplary artists from the region have crafted images to interpret and represent their American reality. Selected narrative, film, and poetic works by Spanish-American (Neruda, Garcia Marquez, Rulfo, and Carpentier), Francophone (Danticat), Lusophone (Amado), and Anglophone authors (Walcott, Brathwaite, and Naipaul), among others.


        • LIT 256 - Trans-American Identity: Images from the Americas
          FDRHL
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
          FacultyStaff

          Counts toward the literature distribution requirement for the Latin American and Caribbean Studies Program. A multi-genre survey of representative literary works from the Americas, defined as those regions that encompass Latin American and Caribbean cultures. In particular the course uses an interdisciplinary approach to show how exemplary artists from the region have crafted images to interpret and represent their American reality. Selected narrative, film, and poetic works by Spanish-American (Neruda, Garcia Marquez, Rulfo, and Carpentier), Francophone (Danticat), Lusophone (Amado), and Anglophone authors (Walcott, Brathwaite, and Naipaul), among others.


        • LIT 259 - The French Caribbean Novel
          FDRHL
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
          FacultyStaff

          A stylistic and thematic study of identity acquisition through exile, marginalization, struggle, reintegration and cultural blending or any other sociologically significant phenomenon reflected in the literary works of the most important post-colonial French West Indian authors. Spawned largely by Aimé Césaire's book-length poem, Notebook of a Return to My Native Land , French Caribbean novels have proliferated since the end of World War II. After taking a brief look first at this seminal poem, the course then focuses analytically on novels written by authors such as Haitian Jacques Roumain, Guadeloupeans Simone Schwarz-Bart and Maryse Condé, and Martinicans Joseph Zobel, Raphaël Confiant, and Édouard Glissant. Several films based on, or pertaining to, Césaire's poem and to certain novels are also viewed.


        • SPAN 240 - Introducción a la literatura hispanoamericana
          FDRHL
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteSPAN 162 or 164 or equivalent
          FacultyStaff

          Spanish-American literary masterpieces from colonial times through the present. Readings and discussions are primarily in Spanish.


        • SPAN 398 - Spanish-American Seminar
          FDRHL
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteSPAN 240 and SPAN 275

          A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. Recent topics have included "Spanish American Women Writers: From America into the 21st Century," "20th Century Latin America Theater," and "Past, Memory, and Identity in Contemporary Argentina's Cultural Products." May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

          Winter 2022, SPAN 398A-01: Spanish-American Seminar: Representaciones del yo y el espacio autobiográfico (3). Prerequisites: SPAN 240. Este curso examina los recursos que emplean los sujetos autobiográficos para su representación en una serie de relatos, testimonios, y documentales en primera persona. El seminario se centra en algunos aspectos vinculados con la imagen autorial, el mito personal y la escena de escritura y de lectura, así como también analiza nociones teóricas que indagan los nexos entre la autoconfiguración, la identidad y la conciencia de género, de clase y de raza. (HL) Botta.


        • and all SPAN numbered between 340 and 359

        • And, if appropriate and approved in advance:
          • ENGL 262 - Literature, Race, and Ethnicity
            FDRHL
            Credits3 in fall, winter; 4 in spring
            PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
            FacultyStaff

            A course that uses ethnicity, race, and culture to develop readings of literature. Politics and history play a large role in this critical approach; students should be prepared to explore their own ethnic awareness as it intersects with other, often conflicting, perspectives. Focus will vary with the professor's interests and expertise, but may include one or more literatures of the English-speaking world: Chicano and Latino, Native American, African-American, Asian-American, Caribbean, African, sub-continental (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka), and others.


          • ENGL 394 - Topics in Literature in English since 1900
            Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
            PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

            Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English since 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

            Fall 2021, ENGL 394A-01: Topics in Literature in English since 1900: American Outdoor Adventure Stories (3). Prerequisites: One English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299. Here in the New World, where Europeans arrived already excited about untouched wilderness waiting to be explored (and willfully blind to the native peoples living here), stories about travel and adventure were popular from the start. This class studies selected stories historically, seeing how the careers of writers like Henry David Thoreau, Mark Twain, and Herman Melville began with travel writings, and how adventure stories since then have developed, contributing to an explosion in extreme sports and outdoor recreation. Other authors may include John Muir, Jack London, Ernest Hemingway, Cormac McCarthy, Hampton Sides, Jon Krakauer, and Cheryl Strayed. We also study contemporary movies like Free Solo and corporations like Patagonia. How do these outdoor adventure stories impact our lives and culture now? (HL) Smout.


          • FREN 344 - La Francophonie
            FDRHL
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteThree courses in French at the 200 level

            An analysis of styles, genres, and themes in relation to particular cultural contexts, as represented in literary works written in French by authors from countries other than France. Of particular interest is French language literature from Africa, the Caribbean, and Canada. May be repeated for degree credit if the topic is different.

            Fall 2021, FRENCH 344B-01: La Francophonie: Le roman francophone à la première personne (3). Prerequisite: 3 courses at the 200-level. This course focuses on first person narratives including autobiographical, semi-autobiographical, as well as fictional texts. We shall examine the way the narrating subject represents herself/himself in the context of/in opposition to a collective entity or experience. Issues such as narrative technique, point of view, space and identity, subjectivity, and representation, will be addressed. Texts studied will be African, Quebecois, and Caribbean. (HL) Kamara.


          • LIT 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
            FDRHL
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing. Completion of FW FDR requirement or this may vary with the topic

            First-year seminar.


          • LIT 295 - Special Topics in Literature in Translation
            FDRHL
            Credits3-4
            PrerequisiteCompletion of FDR FW writing requirement

            A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

            Spring 2022, LIT 295A-01: Topics: Slavery and Colonialism in the African Diaspora (4). The histories, politics, and cultures of various regions have given shape to the global African diaspora, at times producing continuities and at others, points of departure. Two constants, however, are the prevalence of colonialism and slavery, particularly in Africa and the Caribbean. This class will examine the impacts that colonialism and slavery have had on colonized peoples, as well as the linkages between African and Caribbean history, by traveling to Barbados and Martinique—a former British colony and a former French colony. Particular points for consideration include colonial systems of governance, such as direct rule and indirect rule, as well as the contemporary legacies of colonialism and slavery, including movements for reparations. (HU, EXP, GL) Dennie and Kamara.


          • PORT 403 - Directed Individual Study
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteTwo terms of Portuguese language or equivalent and consent of the department head. Taught in Portuguese
            FacultyStaff

            The nature and content of the course is determined by the students' needs and by an evaluation of previous work. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • Art and Humanities:

         

        • ARTH 170 - Arts of Mesoamerica and the Andes
          FDRHA
          Credits3
          FacultyLepage

          This course fulfills the Arts and Humanities requirement for the LACS minor. Survey of the art and architecture of Mesoamerica and the Andes before the arrival of the Europeans, with a focus on indigenous civilizations including the Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca. Art is contextualized in terms of religious, social, political, and economic developments in each region under discussion. The class includes a trip to the Virginia Museum of fine Arts in Richmond or the National Gallery in Washington, D.C.


        • ARTH 271 - Arts of Colonial Latin America
          FDRHA
          Credits3
          FacultyLepage

          This course fulfills the Arts and Humanities requirement for the LACS minor. A survey of the art and architecture of Latin America from the 16th through early-18th centuries. This course begins with an exploration of the art of the Aztec, Maya, Inca, and Spanish before cultural contact. Classes then explore the cultural convergence that resulted from the European military conquest in the 16th century, focusing on the role of indigenous artists and traditions in the formation of early colonial culture. Later lectures consider the rise of nationalism and its effect on the arts.


        • ARTH 274 - Art and Revolution: Mexican Muralism
          FDRHA
          Credits3
          FacultyLepage

          This course fulfills the Arts and Humanities requirement for the LACS minor. A survey of public monumental art produced by Mexican artists Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros in Mexico and the United States from 1910 to the 1970s. Lectures focus on art that promotes social ideals and the role that art played in building a new national consciousness in Mexico. Students also examine the impact of muralism throughout Latin America and the United States.


        • ARTH 276 - Chicana/o Art and Muralism: From the Street to the (Staniar) Gallery
          FDRHA
          Credits4
          PrerequisiteOpen to all students
          FacultyLepage

          This course fulfills the Arts and Humanities requirement for the LACS minor. This class examines the process by which Chicana/o artists have garnered public attention and respect, taking their artworks from the peripheries of the art world to museum and gallery spaces. Using the Great Wall of Los Angeles as a connecting thread, this class considers the broad theme of identity creation and transformation as expressed by Chicana/o artists from the 1970s to the present.


        • ARTH 378 - Border Art: Contemporary Chicanx and U.S. Latinx Art
          FDRHA
          Credits3
          FacultyLepage

          This course fulfills the Arts and Humanities requirement for the LACS minor. This seminar engages broad-ranging debates that have looked at the Mexico-US border as a fruitful site of identity formation. In this seminar, we examine artworks with an emphasis on location, critical standpoint, interrelatedness, and the geopolitics of identity. Through readings and class discussions, students investigate protest art and arts activism. Students develop methods of "critical seeing" through image analysis, art historical analysis, and cultural critique. We consider artworks produced by Chicanx, U.S. Latinx, and other transnational artists in a wide range of formats including printmaking, performance art, mural painting, photography, film and video, books, comics, public art projects, and an array of post-conceptual practices..


        • HIST 130 - Latin America: Mayas to Independence
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          FacultyGildner

          An introduction to the "Indian" and Iberian people active from Florida to California through Central and South America between 1450 and 1750.


        • HIST 131 - Modern Latin America: Túpak Katari to Tupac Shakur
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          FacultyGildner

          A survey of Latin America from the 1781 anticolonial rebellion led by indigenous insurgent Túpak Katari to a globalized present in which Latin American youth listen to Tupac Shakur yet know little of his namesake. Lectures are organized thematically (culture, society, economics, and politics) and chronologically, surveying the historical formation of people and nations in Latin America. Individual countries (especially Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru) provide examples of how local and transnational forces have shaped the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries of North and South America and the Caribbean, and the cultural distinctions and ethnic diversity that characterize a region too often misperceived as homogeneous.


        • HIST 233 - U.S.-Latin American Relations from 1825 to Present
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          FacultyGildner

          Examines the historical interaction between Latin America and the United States from Spanish American Independence in 1825 to the present. Explores the political, social, cultural, economic, and ecological dimensions of this relationship, focusing on such key themes as imperialism, development, military-state relations, the environment, the war on drugs, science and technology, and human rights.


        • HIST 236 - Afro-Latin America
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          FacultyGildner

          This class examines the intrinsic role that African peoples have played in the historical formation of the geographic and cultural area known as Latin America. We survey the history of African descendant people in the Americas from the forced migration of the Atlantic slave trade to the Haitian Revolution; from the sugar plantation to the city street; from Brazilian Samba in the 1920s to the emergence of salsa music in Spanish Harlem in the 1970s. Topics include slavery, the Haitian Revolution and its legacy, debates on "racial democracy", and the relationship between gender, race, and empire.


        • HIST 337 - Seminar: Revolutions in Latin America
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing
          FacultyGildner

          Detailed analysis of 20th-century revolutionary movements in Latin America. Examines historical power struggles, social reforms, and major political changes, with in-depth exploration of Mexico, Bolivia, Cuba, Peru, Chile, and Nicaragua. Explores the social movements and ideologies of under-represented historical actors, such as peasants, guerrillas, artists, workers, women, students, and indigenous people.


        • HIST 366 - Seminar: Slavery in the Americas
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing
          FacultyDeLaney

          An intensive examination of slavery, abolition movements and emancipation in North America, the Caribbean and Latin America. Emphasis is on the use of primary sources and class discussion of assigned readings.


        • SPAN 212 - Spanish-American Civilization and Culture
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteSPAN 162, 164 or equivalent
          FacultyStaff

          A survey of significant developments in Spanish-American civilizations. The course addresses Spanish-American heritage and the present-day cultural patterns formed by its legacies. Readings, discussions and papers primarily in Spanish for further development of communication skills.


        • And, if appropriate and approved in advance:
          • FREN 280 - Civilisation et culture francophones
            FDRHU
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteFREN 162, FREN 164, or equivalent

            A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization in francophone countries. Topics may include: contemporary Africa, pre-colonial Africa, West Indian history and culture, and Canadian contemporary issues. Readings, discussion and papers in French further development of communication skills.


          • HIST 269 - Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History
            FDRHU
            Credits3-4

            A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

            Winter 2022, HIST 269A-01: Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History: History of the Civil Rights Movement (3).
            This course will examine the trajectory of the Civil Rights Movement by focusing on particular events, strategies, organizations, and political actors. After identifying the conditions that contributed to the emergence of the Civil Rights Movement, the course will trace the movement from the landmark 1954 Brown v. Board case to the rise of Black Power during the 1970s. The course will conclude by examining the relationship between the Civil Rights Movement and the #BlackLivesMatter movement. (HU) Dennie.

            Winter 2022, HIST 269B-01: Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History: Thugs, Jezebels, and Contemporary Politics (3).
            In the months prior to the 2016 presidential election, race relations in the United States were propelled into the American public consciousness with great force, although race has continually exerted an omnipresent influence on contemporary politics. Beginning with Clarence Thomas's 1991 Supreme Court confirmation hearings, this course will survey how discourse on Black femininity, masculinity, sexuality, and class has impacted American politics from 1991 to the present. Topics for consideration include welfare reform, reproductive justice, mass incarceration, voter suppression, and white nationalism. Readings will also consider how Black activists and Black public figures such as lawyers, journalists, and politicians have responded to and resisted racism and sexism in contemporary politics. (HU) Dennie.

            Winter 2022, HIST 269C-01: Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History: The Indigenous South (3).
            This course is about Indigenous southerners and the region they have long inhabited. It is a chronically broad course that will focus primarily on the history of Indigenous people and nations in the Southeast from the pre-contact period to the present. Comprised of diverse peoples, speaking different languages, and with a range of customs and beliefs, the people of the Native South nevertheless share common cultural traditions, social systems, and histories. In this class will examine the Mississippian mound building civilizations; Native southerners encounters with Europeans; the American Revolution, Civil War, and Jim Crow as seen and experienced in the Native Southeast; and contemporary struggles for Native sovereignty in Virginia. Students will learn about the experiences of Indigenous southerners throughout southern history and in the present; be introduced to the methodologies used by ethnohistorians and in the discipline of Native American and Indigenous Studies that are used to recover Indigenous perspectives and history; develop a final project that explores Indigenous history and erasure in and around Rockbridge County. (HU) Sammons.

            Fall 2021, HIST 269A-01: Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History: Introduction to Black Women's History (3). 
            What happens when American history is narrated by Black women and through Black women's experiences? How might we understand US history if we locate Black women at the center rather than the peripheries? These questions provide the guiding framework for this course. This course will trace African American women's history from slavery to the present. Particular attention will be devoted to Black women's labor, activism, intellectual thought, and cultural productions. We will also consider how race, gender, class, and sexuality have functioned in Black women's lives. (HU) Dennie.


          • HIST 395 - Advanced Seminar
            FDRHU
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing, or 15 credits in history, or consent of the instructor. Prerequisites may vary by topic

            A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


          • SPAN 296 - Topics in Hispanic Culture and Expression
            Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
            PrerequisiteSPAN 162, 164, or equivalent

            This course offers students the opportunity to further their understanding of Hispanic cultures and their expression by focusing on a relevant cultural, linguistic or literary topic, on an historical period, or on a region of Spain, Latin America or the U.S. Readings, discussions, and assignments are primarily in Spanish. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • Social Sciences:

         

        • POL 247 - Latin American Politics
          FDRSS2
          Credits3
          FacultyStaff

          This course focuses on Latin American politics during the 20th and 21st centuries. Major topics include: democracy and authoritarianism; representation and power; populism, socialism, and neoliberalism; and economic development and inequality. The course places particular emphasis on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, and Cuba. In addition, the course examines political relations between the United States and Latin America.


        • SOAN 250 - Revolutions and Revolutionaries
          FDRSS4
          Credits3
          FacultyPerez

          An exploration of the experiences of activists, radicals, and revolutionaries in a wide variety of settings. Throughout history, individuals have organized with others to bring about different forms of social change. What is it like to be on the front lines fighting for social transformation? Why do people risk life and limb to do so? How do activists advance their goals? We examine sociological research, biographical studies, political theory, and historical sources for insights into the lives of those who make social and revolutionary movements possible.


        • SOAN 263 - Poverty and Marginality in the Americas
          FDRSS4
          Credits3
          FacultyPerez

          In recent decades, some global transformations have increased inequality and marginality in various regions of the world. Neoliberalism has generated both opportunities and challenges to human development In different countries. This course focuses on how the undermining of safety nets, the decline of models of economic growth centered on state intervention, and the internationalization of labor markets have affected societies in Latin America and the United States. Students analyze the structural causes of marginality and how the experience of poverty varies for people in both regions. We rely on anthropological and sociological studies to address key questions. How do disadvantaged individuals and families in the Americas deal with the challenges brought about by deindustrialization, violence, and environmental degradation? How do their communities struggle to sustain public life? What are the processes causing many people to migrate from one region to the other?


        • SOAN 264 - States, Data, and Population Policies in the Americas
          FDRSS4
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteOne course selected from SOAN 101, SOAN 102, POV 101, or LACS 101
          FacultyEastwood

          While concentrating on the societies of the Americas, students focus on two of the main domains within which states seek to understand and influence populations: policies governing the collection of information about their residents, such as the census, and those governing migration. The course is made up of two interwoven parts, a traditional seminar portion that examines such policies from the perspective of historical sociology and a data-lab portion in which we perform exploratory visualization of historical and contemporary census and migration data from the region, using the "tidyverse" suite of R packages. We reflect critically on our own work, making use of perspectives afforded by the historical sociology portion of the course.


        • And, if appropriate and approved in advance:
          • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteECON 100 or ECON 101
            FacultyCasey, Kahn

            The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.


          • ECON 280 - Development Economics
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
            FacultyCasey, Blunch

            A survey of the major issues of development economics. Economic structure of low-income countries and primary causes for their limited economic growth. Economic goals and policy alternatives. Role of developed countries in the development of poor countries. Selected case studies.


          • ECON 295 - Special Topics in Economics
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteNormally ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102 but may vary with topic. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years

            Course emphasis and prerequisites change from term to term and are announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of nine credits chosen from all special topics in economics courses may be used, with permission of the department head, toward requirements for the economics major.

            Fall 2021, ECON 295A-01: Special Topics in Economics: Economy of Latin America (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102. Why were many Latin American countries, which started with levels of development similar to those of the U.S. and Canada, not able to keep up?  This course reviews the historic and contemporary economic issues and development in the Latin America and Caribbean region. We will start with the policies, both domestic and foreign, undertaken during the colonial and post-Independence periods and see what effects they still have today. Next, we examine the post-WWII period, exploring subjects like the import substitution of the 1970s, the debt crises of the 1980s, and the structural reforms of the 1990s. Finally, we will look at the current state of the region, emphasizing the new macroeconomic challenges and contemporary domestic social problems. Topics discussed include income inequality and poverty, inflation, macroeconomic populism, dollarization, and the more recent debt crises and restructurings. Alvarez.

            Fall 2021, ECON 295A-02: Special Topics in Economics: Economy of Latin America (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102. Why were many Latin American countries, which started with levels of development similar to those of the U.S. and Canada, not able to keep up?  This course reviews the historic and contemporary economic issues and development in the Latin America and Caribbean region. We will start with the policies, both domestic and foreign, undertaken during the colonial and post-Independence periods and see what effects they still have today. Next, we examine the post-WWII period, exploring subjects like the import substitution of the 1970s, the debt crises of the 1980s, and the structural reforms of the 1990s. Finally, we will look at the current state of the region, emphasizing the new macroeconomic challenges and contemporary domestic social problems. Topics discussed include income inequality and poverty, inflation, macroeconomic populism, dollarization, and the more recent debt crises and restructurings. Alvarez.

            Fall 2021, ECON 295B-01: Special Topics in Economics: Behavioral and Experimental Economics (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or ECON 101. The aim of the course will be to understand the notions of human behavior in everyday lives and its impact on markets. We will be taking the help of psychological insights to decipher why we overthink a bad outcome while undermining the possibility of a good outcome, what role does bias play when we place our bets in a casino or how do we create expectations in our minds regarding tomorrow's prices. We will be discussing policy prescriptions and analyzing case studies on how small changes in the environment can change human behavior so drastically. We will discuss the fundamentals of conducting laboratory and online experiments, which are valuable skill sets. Upadhyay.

            Fall 2021, ECON 295B-02: Special Topics in Economics: Behavioral and Experimental Economics (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or ECON 101. The aim of the course will be to understand the notions of human behavior in everyday lives and its impact on markets. We will be taking the help of psychological insights to decipher why we overthink a bad outcome while undermining the possibility of a good outcome, what role does bias play when we place our bets in a casino or how do we create expectations in our minds regarding tomorrow's prices. We will be discussing policy prescriptions and analyzing case studies on how small changes in the environment can change human behavior so drastically. We will discuss the fundamentals of conducting laboratory and online experiments, which are valuable skill sets. Upadhyay.


          • ECON 356 - Economics of the Environment in Developing Countries
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteECON 203 and either ECON 255 or 280, or obtain instructor consent. Preference to ECON or ENV majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
            FacultyKahn, Casey

            This course focuses on the unique characteristics of the relationship between the environment and the economy in developing nations. Differences in economic structure, political structure, culture, social organization and ecosystem dynamics are emphasized as alternative policies for environmental and resource management are analyzed.


          • POL 215 - International Development
            FDRSS2
            Credits3
            FacultyStaff

            A study of international development and human capability, with a focus on Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The course analyzes theories to explain development successes and failures, with a focus on the structures, institutions, and actors that shape human societies and social change. Key questions include measuring economic growth and poverty, discussing the roles of states and markets in development, and examining the role of industrialized countries in reducing global poverty. The course explores links between politics and other social sciences and humanities.


          • POL 380 - Seminar in Global Politics
            FDRSS2
            Credits3
            PrerequisitePOLI 105 or instructor consent. Open to majors and non-majors of all classes. Meets the global politics field requirement in the politics major

            Examination of selected topics dealing with international and comparative politics. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

            Winter 2022, POL 380A-01: Seminar in Global Politics: Immigration Attitudes (3). Prerequisite: POL 105 or instructor consent. An examination of immigration attitudes in Europe, the United States, and Latin America. When and why do individuals choose to migrate to a different country? How do natives of the receiving country react to immigration and form preferences on the issue depending on their socio-economic and political context? The study of immigration has received a lot of attention in recent times as a consequence of the increased political salience of the topic. We examine the different factors that determine immigration attitudes in European countries and the United States, as well as the transportability of these explanatory factors to other regions of the world, such as Latin America. Immigration has become a pressing issue in this region, as the flow of people to countries outside the region has reduced since the 2000s while immigration across Latin American countries has increased. (SS2) Ponce de Leon Seijas.
             


          • POL 381 - Seminar in International Political Economy
            FDRSS2
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 102, or POL 105, or instructor consent. Meets the global politics field requirement in the politics major
            FacultyStaff

            This course provides an intermediate-level introduction to the major actors, questions, and theories in the field of international political economy (IPE). Course participants discuss political and economic interactions in the areas of international trade, fiscal and monetary policy, and exchange rates; discuss globalization in historical and contemporary perspectives; and examine the international politics of the major intergovernmental organizations, multinational corporations, states, and other institutional actors in the global economy.


          • SOAN 268 - Migration, Identity, and Conflict
            FDRSS4
            Credits3
            PrerequisiteSOAN 102, POV 101, or POL 105
            FacultyEastwood

            This course focuses on the complex relationship between migration, political institutions, group identities, and inter-group conflict. The course is a hybrid of a seminar and research lab in which students (a) read some of the key social-scientific literature on these subjects, and (b) conduct team-based research making use of existing survey data about the integration of migrant populations into various polities.


          • SOAN 277 - Seminar in Medical Anthropology
            FDRSS4
            Credits3
            FacultyMarkowitz

            Despite radical differences in theory and procedure, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases are human cultural universals. This seminar first examines the beliefs and practices that comprise the medical systems found among a wide variety of non-western peoples. We then investigates the responses of a number of non-western communities to the introduction of western, biomedical practices. We finish by considering such ethical issues as whether or not non-western peoples who supply western doctors and pharmacologists with knowledge of curing agents should be accorded intellectual property rights over this information; in what situations, if any, should western medical personnel impose biomedical treatments on populations; and should anthropologists make use of indigenous peoples as medical trial subjects as was allegedly done by Napoleon Chagnon.


          • SOAN 285 - Introduction to American Indian Religions
            FDRHU
            Credits3
            FacultyMarkowitz

            This class introduces students to some of the dominant themes, values, beliefs, and practices found among the religions of North America's Indian peoples. The first part of the course explores the importance of sacred power, landscape, and community in traditional Indian spiritualities and rituals. It then examines some of the changes that have occurred in these traditions as a result of western expansion and dominance from the 18th through early 20th centuries. Lastly, the course considers some of the issues and problems confronting contemporary American Indian religions.


          • SOAN 290 - Special Topics in Sociology
            Credits3 in Fall or Winter, 3 or 4 in Spring

            A discussion of a series of topics of sociological concern. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


          • SOAN 291 - Special Topics in Anthropology
            Credits3-4

            A discussion of a series of topics of anthropological concern. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

             


  5. Related:
  6.  6 credits from the following or from any course not used above in 2. Distribution:

    • ECON 259 - Supervised Study Abroad: The Environment and Economic Development in Amazonas
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101 or ENV 110, and instructor consent
      FacultyKahn

      Spring Term Abroad course. Amazonas is a huge Brazilian state of 1.5 million sq. kilometers which retains 94 percent of its original forest cover. This course examines the importance of the forest for economic development in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and how policies can be develop to promote both environmental protection and an increase in the quality life in both the urban and rural areas of Amazonas. The learning objectives of this course integrate those of the economics and environmental studies majors. Students are asked to use economic tools in an interdisciplinary context to understand the relationships among economic behavior, ecosystems and policy choices. Writing assignments focus on these relationships and look towards the development of executive summary writing skills.


    • LACS 195 - Special Topics in Latin American and Caribbean Studies
      FDRdesignation varies with topic, as approved in advance
      Credits3 or 4

      A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme relevant to the overall understanding of Latin America and the Caribbean region, such as Hispanic Feminisms, the Indigenous Americas, or Shifting Borders, among others. As an introductory seminar, topics are selected with the purpose in mind to present the student with a broad, regional view within the scope of a restricted focus or medium. May be repeated for credit if the topics are different.

       


    • LACS 257 - Multiculturalism in Latin America: The Case of Brazil
      FDRHL
      Credits4
      FacultyPinto-Bailey

      This seminar studies Brazil as an example of a multicultural society. Students examine the meaning of multiculturalism and related concepts of identity, heterogeneity, and Eurocentrism, not only in regard to the Brazilian context, but also, comparatively, to that of US culture. The course focuses on the social dynamics that have engaged Brazilians of different backgrounds, marked by differences of gender, ethnicity, and class, and on how multiculturalism and the ensuing conflicts have continuously shaped and reshaped individual subjectivities and national identity. Some of the key issues to be addressed in class are: Brazil's ethnic formation; myths of national identity; class and racial relations; and women in Brazilian society. Readings for the class include novels, short stories, poetry, and testimonial/diary


    • LACS 421 - Interdisciplinary Research
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor
      FacultyStaff

      Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.


    • LACS 422 - Interdisciplinary Research
      Credits2
      PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor
      FacultyStaff

      Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.


    • LACS 423 - Interdisciplinary Research
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor
      FacultyStaff

      Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.


    • LACS 451 - LACS Practicum
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteGraded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Prerequisite: At least three credits from LACS-designated coursework; one course chosen from FREN 162, FREN 164, PORT 163, SPAN 162, SPAN 164, or equivalent; and instructor consent

      Supervised experience in a Latin American or Caribbean setting (including domestic U.S.),  such as an agency, research organization, or other venue that offers insight into Latin American and Caribbean issues. Requires at least 16 work hours over no fewer than four weeks and a research report in addition to the off-campus activities. May be carried out during the summer. May be repeated for credit when the setting is different. Offered when interest is expressed and LACS faculty can accommodate.


    • LACS 452 - LACS Practicum
      Credits2
      PrerequisiteGraded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Prerequisite: At least three credits from LACS-designated coursework; one course chosen from FREN 162, FREN 164, PORT 163, SPAN 162, SPAN 164, or equivalent; and instructor consent

      Supervised experience in a Latin American or Caribbean setting (including domestic U.S.),  such as an agency, research organization, or other venue that offers insight into Latin American and Caribbean issues. Requires at least 32 work hours over no fewer than four weeks and a research report in addition to the off-campus activities. May be carried out during the summer. Offered when interest is expressed and LACS faculty can accommodate.


    • LACS 453 - LACS Fieldwork
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteGraded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Prerequisite: LACS 101; one course chosen from FREN 162, FREN 164, PORT 163, SPAN 162, SPAN 164, or equivalent; and instructor consent

      Supervised experience in a Latin American or Caribbean setting (including domestic U.S.),  such as an agency, research organization, or other venue that offers insight into Latin American and Caribbean issues. Requires at least 48 work hours over no fewer than six weeks and a research report in addition to the off-campus activities. May be carried out during the summer. Offered when interest is expressed and LACS faculty can accommodate.


    • LACS 454 - LACS Fieldwork
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteGraded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Prerequisite: LACS 101; one course chosen from FREN 162, FREN 164, PORT 163, SPAN 162, SPAN 164, or equivalent; and instructor consent

      Supervised experience in a Latin American or Caribbean setting (including domestic U.S.),  such as an agency, research organization, or other venue that offers insight into Latin American and Caribbean issues. Requires at least 64 work hours over no fewer than eight weeks and a research report in addition to the off-campus activities. May be carried out during the summer. Offered when interest is expressed and LACS faculty can accommodate.


    • SPAN 201 - Supervised Study Abroad: Costa Rica
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteSPAN 162, 164, or equivalent and instructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Spring Term Abroad course. Direct exposure to the language, people, and culture of Costa Rica. Designed to improve grammar and vocabulary of the advanced student through intensive training in Spanish with special emphasis on oral proficiency. The program also includes a home-stay with a Costa Rican family, excursions to local and national sites of interest, cultural activities, and a service-learning component at the local elementary school, hospital, law and accounting firms, or other community agencies.


    • SPAN 216 - Living on the Edge: Identities in Motion in Argentina and Uruguay
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteSPAN 162 or 164 and instructor consent
      FacultyMichelson

      Conducted in Spanish in Argentina and Uruguay, this course comprises a study of Argentine culture, language, and identity. Students live in Buenos Aires with Spanish-speaking families while pursuing coursework on identity in local, national, and international contexts. What does geography have to do with identity? How might a nation redefine its policies and peoples over time? Where does the line exist between an economic system and its individual constituents? And what insights can art offer into domestic and international conflict? This course engages such questions through the study of Argentine historiography, literature, economics, and art. Coursework is accentuated by visits to sites of cultural importance in Argentina and Uruguay, including museums, banks, literary presses, political centers, meat markets, parks, and tango houses.


    • SPAN 290 - Topics in Latin American Culture and Literature
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteMay vary with topic

      This course offers students the opportunity to further their knowledge of the culture and literature of a specific Latin American country, and their awareness of Latin America in general, through the study of special cultural and literary topics. Readings, discussions, and assignments occur primarily in Spanish. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • SPAN 308 - Power and Ideology: (Critical) Discourse Perspectives
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteSPAN 275 and three additional credits at the 200 level or instructor consent
      FacultyReyes

      This course explores different theoretical approaches to account for the relationship between language and power, and therefore the relationship between language use and social processes. In particular, it observes how meaning is constructed and reconstructed in the discourse manifested in different settings and platforms ranging from social media to institutional and official communication. Examples include political discourse from Latin American leaders and media and academic discourses with a focus on Latin America. 


    • And, if approved:
      • BUS 305 - Seminar in International Business
        Credits3 credits in fall and winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisitePreference to BSADM or JMCB majors during the first round of registration

        Offered from time to time when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.
         

        Winter 2022, BUS 305A-01: Seminar in International Business: International Business (3).
        This course is an introduction to the fundamental concepts of international business. The course is designed to provide students with a richer understanding of why international business exist, the drivers of international expansion, and the complexity of international business decisions. The course will also focus on understanding the international business environment and how it affects multinational corporation (MNC) decisions. Emphasis will be placed on examining the causes and consequences of globalization, international trade, international finance, global strategy, and international marketing. We will also explore the differences between developed and emerging markets and its implications for MNCs.  Thakur-Wernz.

        Winter 2022, BUS 305A-02: Seminar in International Business: International Business (3).
        This course is an introduction to the fundamental concepts of international business. The course is designed to provide students with a richer understanding of why international business exist, the drivers of international expansion, and the complexity of international business decisions. The course will also focus on understanding the international business environment and how it affects multinational corporation (MNC) decisions. Emphasis will be placed on examining the causes and consequences of globalization, international trade, international finance, global strategy, and international marketing. We will also explore the differences between developed and emerging markets and its implications for MNCs.  Thakur-Wernz.


      • BUS 337 - Economic Globalization and Multinational Corporations
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteINTR 201 or all MS Word Specialist, MS Word Expert, and MS PowerPoint Specialist certification; and at least junior standing. Preference to BSADM or JMCB majors during first round of registration. See go.wlu.edu/MOS-testing and contact the department head for Microsoft testing details
        FacultyReiter

        This course focuses on the historical and present effects and issues of economic globalization, and the role of multinational corporations in a global economy. Topics covered may include: production, supply chain, technology, trade, finance, natural environment, labor, development, poverty and inequality, privatization of utilities, immigration, and state sovereignty. Emphasis is on understanding the costs and benefits of economic globalization and the role business plays in contributing to these outcomes.


      • BUS 390 - Supervised Study Abroad
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent, other prerequisites as specified by the instructor, and approval of the International Education Committee

        These upper-level courses cover topics of current interest in business administration for which international travel provides a unique opportunity for enhancing understanding. Emphasis changes from year to year and is announced well in advance of registration.

         


      • DANC 215 - World Dance Technique
        FDRHA
        Credits2
        FacultyStaff

        This dance class reflects the world dance form that is the specialty of the dance artist-in-residence. The basic dance techniques of that specific form are taught and movement is tied to the historical narrative of the country.


      • ECON 288 - Supervised Study Abroad
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102, instructor consent, and other prerequisites as specified by the instructor(s)

        For advanced students, the course covers a topic of current interest for which foreign travel provides a unique opportunity for significantly greater understanding. Emphasis and location changes from year to year and is announced each year, well in advance of registration. Likely destinations are Europe, Latin America, Africa, or Asia. This course may not be repeated.

         


      • SOAN 286 - Lakota Land Culture, Economics and History
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101 or instructor consent
        FacultyGuse, Markowitz

        This class focuses on the cultural, economic, and historical dimensions of the Lakotas' (Titonwan tawapi) ties to their lands as expressed in their pre- and post-reservation lifeways. It includes a 10 day field trip to western South Dakota to visit and meet with people in the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations and the Black Hills.


      • SPAN 295 - Special Topics in Conversation
        Credits3 in fall, winter; 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteSPAN 162, 164, or equivalent

        Further development of listening and speaking skills necessary for advanced discussion. Acquisition of both practical and topic-specific vocabulary. Appropriate writing and reading assignments, related to the topic, accompany the primary emphasis on conversational skills. Recent topics include: Hispanic Cinema and La Prensa. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • SPAN 308 - Power and Ideology: (Critical) Discourse Perspectives
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 275 and three additional credits at the 200 level or instructor consent
        FacultyReyes

        This course explores different theoretical approaches to account for the relationship between language and power, and therefore the relationship between language use and social processes. In particular, it observes how meaning is constructed and reconstructed in the discourse manifested in different settings and platforms ranging from social media to institutional and official communication. Examples include political discourse from Latin American leaders and media and academic discourses with a focus on Latin America. 


      • SPAN 392 - Spanish Language Theory and Practice
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteVaries with topic

        A topics course that approaches language study through theories of language use and meaning, as well as their practical application through extensive writing exercises. Topics may include translation theory, analysis of theoretical approaches to language study, and advanced grammar. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


  7. Capstone experience (typically after completion of other program courses):
  8.  

    • LACS 396 - Capstone Seminar in Latin American and Caribbean Studies
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteDeclaration and completion of all other minor requirements or instructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      This capstone course builds upon the foundations developed in LACS 101 and related coursework in the distribution areas. Students discuss assigned readings centered around a key theme or themes of Latin American Studies in connection with an individualized research project. This project is carried out with continual mentoring by a faculty member and in collaboration with peer feedback. Each student presents his/her findings in a formal paper, or other approved end-product, and summarizes the results in an oral presentation.