Course Offerings

Winter 2021

See complete information about these courses in the course offerings database. For more information about a specific course, including course type, schedule and location, click on its title.

European History, 1500-1789

HIST 101 - Brock, Michelle D. (Mikki)

An individual who died in 1500 would have been surprised, if not bewildered, by many aspects of European life and thought in 1800. What changed over these three centuries? What stayed the same? Why should we in the 21st century, care? This course examines the history of Europe from the Renaissance through the beginning of the French Revolution. It explores the interplay of religion, politics, society, culture, and economy at a time when Europe underwent great turmoil and change: the Reformation, the consolidation of state power, the rise of constitutionalism, global expansion and encounters with "others," perpetual warfare, the rise of the market economy, the spread of the slave trade, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment. This course discusses how these processes transformed Europe into the Western world of today, while also challenging ideas about what "Western," "European," and "Civilization" actually mean.

 

European History, 1789 to the Present

HIST 102 - Bidlack, Richard H. (Rich)

The French Revolution and Napoleon, the era of nationalism, the rise of socialism, imperialism, World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and European Union.

Japan: Origins to Atomic Aftermath

HIST 104 - Bello, David A.

This course traces the span of Japan's historical development from its origins through the Cold War, with a special, but not exclusive, emphasis on an environmental perspective. The first half of the course covers the emergence of indigenous Japanese society and its adaptation to cultural and political influences from mainland East Asia, including Buddhism, Confucianism, and Chinese concepts of empire. The second half covers Japan's successful transition from a declining Tokugawa Shogunate to a modern imperial nation to a reluctant U.S. Cold War ally from the mid-19th to the mid-20th centuries.

History of the United States Since 1876

HIST 108 - Gildner, Robert M. (Matt)

A survey of United States History from Reconstruction to the present with emphasis on industrialization, urbanization, domestic and international developments, wars, and social and cultural movements.

Dictatorship and Democracy in Germany, 1914-2000

HIST 214 - Patch, William L. (Bill)

The failure of Germany's first attempt at democracy in the Weimar Republic, the interaction between art and politics, the mentality of the Nazis, the institutions of the Third Reich, the Second World War and Holocaust, the occupation and partition of Germany in 1945, the reasons for the success of democratic institutions in the Federal Republic, the origins of modern feminism, the economic collapse of the German Democratic Republic, and the process of national reunification in 1989-91.

Soviet Russia, 1917 to 1991

HIST 221 - Bidlack, Richard H. (Rich)

The revolutions of 1917, the emergence of the Soviet system, the Stalinist period, Stalin's successors, and the eventual collapse of the USSR.

Topics in European History

HIST 229A - Patch, William L. (Bill)

A course offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in European history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Winter 2021, HIST 229A-01: Topics in European History: The War to End All Wars: Testimonies about the Experience of the First World War (3). In this discussion- and writing-intensive course, open to all students and taught virtually, we will analyze a famous anti-war autobiography by Robert Graves (Good-Bye to All That), a fiercely patriotic account of the combat experience by the German officer Ernst Jünger (Storms of Steel), and a collection of poems by British women who became nurses or munitions workers.  Our goal will be to understand why the experience of this war upended the lives of so many participants and confounded their expectations regarding "progress", and the Great War's long-term impact on European culture and society.  You will be asked to write three short papers on the required readings and a modest term paper of 6-8 pages on a memoir, autobiographical novel, or war diary of special interest to you. (HU) Patch.

The Evolution of American Warfare

HIST 243 - Myers, Barton A.

This course examines U.S. military history from the colonial period to the post-9/11 American military experience. Since this is a period of more than four hundred years, the course limits its focus to major topics and central questions facing the men and women who have fought in American wars. We trace the course of American military history by focusing on three themes: the early development of American military institutions, the evolution of military policy toward civilian populations, and the changing face of battle in which Americans have fought. All three of these themes relate to the central goal of this course, which is to gain a better understanding of how America's military developed in conjunction with and sometimes in conflict with American democracy.

American Experience with Guerrilla Warfare and Insurgency

HIST 246 - Myers, Barton A.

This course dives headlong into the chaotic, destructive, and brutally violent world that has been American Involvement with irregular warfare. Over the past 400 years, Americans have trained guerrillas, fought as irregulars, and sparked armed insurrections. This course looks at the broad typology of violence known as irregular warfare, including insurrections, violent revolutions, partisan and guerrilla warfare, U.S. Army/Native American conflict, and 20th-century insurgency and low-intensity conflict.

Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History

HIST 269A - Dennie, Nneka D.

A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Winter 2021, HIST 269A-01: Topics: Black Radical Women (3). African-diasporic women have consistently imagined new futures in their pursuits of freedom and justice. In so doing, they have resisted patriarchy, racial violence, and state-sanctioned oppression. This course will offer an introduction to the theories and activism that have characterized Black women's radicalism from the nineteenth century to the present. By examining sources including writings by Frances Harper; articles by Claudia Jones; songs by Miriam Makeba; contemporary, digital activist campaigns; and more, students will evaluate how Black women have critiqued racism, sexism, and class exploitation. The course will also investigate how women navigated racial, gender, and class dynamics within activist organizations. Key topics for consideration include abolition, suffrage, Garveyism, Négritude, the anti-apartheid movement, Black Power, and #BlackLivesMatter. Ultimately, students will analyze Black women's roles in movements for Black liberation, feminism, and Black internationalism. (HU) Dennie.

Visions of Japan's Empire in East Asia: 19th-Century Origins through World War II

HIST 284 - Bello, David A.

Japan's 19th-century imperial system ensured its status as the only major non-western "great power" in the first half of the 20th century. Within the space of its fifty years of existence (1895-1945), imperial Japan underwent radical political, social and cultural transformations that had equally profound effects on East Asian and world history, culminating in World War II. The course explores these distinctive transformations, which constitute Japan's theory and practice of political and cultural imperialism, through an analysis of text and image, from which the class constructs a website.

Seminar: Topics in History

HIST 295A - Rupke, Nicolaas A.

A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Winter 2021, HIST 295A-01: Topics in History: Evolution Theories from 1755 Till Today (3). One of the most influential scientific theories is the theory of (organic) evolution. Its history has largely been written by Darwin and his followers. In this course, we look at the "Darwin industry" but then additionally explore a revisionist history that incorporates the non-Darwinian approach to the origin of life and species. Giving close attention to the scientific facts and the different theories, we also raise the question "Where were these theories situated?" "What socio-political purposes did they serve and which religious connotations did they have?" We will end by bringing the historical perspective to bear on today's ongoing controversies about evolution theory. (HU) Rupke.

Seminar: Topics in History

HIST 295B - Rupke, Nicolaas A.

A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Winter 2021, HIST 295B-01: Topics in History: Science and Religion in Historical Perspectives (3). The focal point of our presentations/essays/discussions is the encounter of science and Christian belief in the Western tradition during the period stretching from the time of the Renaissance to the present day. With respect to historiographical approaches, the so-called conflict or warfare model will be deconstructed while we construct the relationship between science & religion in terms of several parallel discourses, only one of which is to be understood as conflict. A number of thematic topics are to pass the revue, ranging from early-modern physico-theology to current controversies over atheist evolution vs Intelligent Design. Moreover, in order to anchor these general issues to concrete circumstances of time and place, a biographical approach will be followed, and the science & religion question explored in the context of the lives and careers of single eminent scientists. (HU) Rupke.

 

Seminar on The Great War in History and Literature

HIST 319 - Patch, William L. (Bill)

An advanced seminar in which students analyze different kinds of written accounts of the First World War (memoirs, autobiographical novels, poems, and diaries) by different kinds of participants, including common soldiers, government leaders, and women who worked on the "home front." In class discussions and two short papers, students evaluate the reliability of these witnesses and what the historian can learn from them about the psychological, cultural, and political consequences of the First World War in Great Britain, France, and Germany. Students choose one question raised in our common meetings for more detailed investigation in a substantial research paper integrating primary and secondary sources.

Winter 2021, HIST 319-01: Seminar on The Great War in History and Literature: The War to End All Wars (3). Prerequisite: HIST 102 or instructor consent (which will be granted to any student who has taken a relevant 200-level course in European history). In this seminar designed for history majors, we will analyze together a few of the most famous personal accounts of the Great War; you will then conduct independent research on a topic of special interest to you for a substantial term paper of about twenty pages.  Your goal will be to analyze an illuminating body of personal testimony regarding the psychological impact of combat, the experience of women who supported the war effort as nurses or munitions workers, or the long-term impact of the Great War on European society and culture.  Our joint class meetings will be virtual, but students taking this course should live in Lexington so that they can undertake library research. (HU) Patch.

African American Intellectual History

HIST 359 - Dennie, Nneka D.

Since their earliest arrivals in the New World, African Americans crafted liberatory ideas as they articulated a desire for equality, justice, and self-determination. Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, black intellectual thought took shape against the backdrop of processes of enslavement, emancipation, racial violence, and state-sanctioned oppression. Indeed, the discursive spaces that black political thinkers created became major sites of knowledge production and provided momentum for black mobilization. Beginning with David Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World  (1829), this course will probe landmark texts by and about African American thinkers including Maria Stewart, Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, Malcolm X., and Angela Davis. Students will evaluate historical perspectives on topics including racial uplift, feminism, black nationalism, and Pan-Africanism. They will also identify major debates that shaped the development of African American intellectual history.

Advanced Seminar

HIST 395A - Brock, Michelle D. (Mikki)

A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Winter 2021, HIST 395A-01: Advanced Seminar: The Devil in the Western World (3). Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing, and instructor consent. The devil is one of the most recognizable figures in Europe and America, appearing in religion, art, popular culture, and even political rhetoric. This course explores how understandings of the devil and his role in the cosmos have changed from late antiquity to the present. Together, we ask why the devil became (and remains) such an influential part of the Western tradition. Topics covered include the biblical origins of Satan, medieval demonology, the impact of the Reformation and Enlightenment, cases of possession and witchcraft, depictions of the devil in literature and film, the devil and conspiracy theories, and modern discussions about the nature of evil. (HU) Brock.

Honors Thesis

HIST 493 - Brock, Michelle D. (Mikki)

Honors Thesis. Additional information is available at www.wlu.edu/history-department/about-the-program/honors-in-history .

Fall 2020

See complete information about these courses in the course offerings database. For more information about a specific course, including course type, schedule and location, click on its title.

European History, 325-1517

HIST 100 - Vise, Melissa E.

An introductory survey, featuring lectures and discussions of European culture, politics, religion and social life, and of Europe's relations with neighboring societies, from the rise of Christianity in Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages and the Italian Renaissance, to the beginnings of the 16th-century Protestant and Catholic Reformations.

China: Origins to 20th-Century Reforms

HIST 103 - Bello, David A.

China's history embodies the full range of experience -as domain of imperial dynasties, target of imperial aggression, dissident member of the cold war Communist bloc, and current regional superpower in East Asia. This course tracks these transitions in political and social organization that, among other things, terminated history's longest lasting monarchical system, ignited two of its largest revolutions, began World War II and produced the most populous nation on earth. A wide range of cultural, political and intellectual stereotypes of China are challenged in the process of exploring its particular historical experience.

History of the United States to 1876

HIST 107 - Myers, Barton A.

A survey of United States history from the colonial period through Reconstruction with emphasis on the American Revolution, the formation of the Constitution, the rise of parties, western expansion, the slavery controversy, sectionalism, secession, Civil War and Reconstruction.

Violence in Pre-Modern Europe

HIST 201 - Vise, Melissa E.

Popular imagination envisions violence in pre-modern Europe as it appears in film and video games like Assassin's Creed 2 -- an age of vendetta, factional and gang violence, constant war, and abuse. Yet the same period witnessed great movements for peace and the creation of a new identity: The Chivalrous Knight. We look at the history of large-scale violence and in particular at warfare, popular revolt, government-sanctioned violence, enslavement, and inter-religious violence from the period 800-1600 CE to begin answering that question. When and why was violence justified or even considered a positive attribute of social life and when and why not?

Germany, 1815-1914

HIST 213 - Patch, William L. (Bill)

The impact of the French Revolution on Germany, the onset of industrialization, the revolution of 1848, the career of Bismarck and Germany's wars of national unification, the Kulturkampf between Protestants and Catholics, the rise of the socialist labor movement, liberal feminism and the movement for women's rights, the origins of "Imperialism" in foreign policy, and Germany's role in the outbreak of the First World War.

The Making of Modern Scotland: Braveheart to Brexit

HIST 216 - Brock, Michelle D. (Mikki)

A surveys of the history of the Scottish people from the medieval period up to the current debates surrounding the possibility of Scottish Independence and the future of Great Britain.  Along the way, we examine the Wars of Independence, the Renaissance and Reformation, the Scottish Enlightenment, the Highland clearances, emigration to North America, involvement in the British Empire, and the development of Scottish nationalism. Students confront two interrelated questions: How has the history of Scotland been made, manipulated, and romanticized over the last seven centuries, and why do we remain fascinated by this small country across the Atlantic? This class, then, is both an introduction to Scottish history, and an exploration of the thin lines between history, myth, and reality.

Seminar: The Age of the Witch Hunts

HIST 219 - Brock, Michelle D. (Mikki)

This course introduces students to one of the most fascinating and disturbing events in the history of the Western world: the witch hunts in early-modern Europe and North America. Between 1450 and 1750, more than 100,000 individuals, from Russia to Salem, were prosecuted for the crime of witchcraft. Most were women and more than half were executed. In this course, we examine the political, religious, social, and legal reasons behind the trials, asking why they occurred in Europe when they did and why they finally ended. We also explore, in brief, global witch hunts that still occur today in places like Africa and India, asking how they resemble yet differ from those of the early-modern world.

Imperial Russia, 1682 to 1917

HIST 220 - Bidlack, Richard H. (Rich)

From the rise to power of Peter the Great, Russia's first emperor, through the fall of the Romanov dynasty.

The American Civil War

HIST 245 - Myers, Barton A.

The sectional crisis. The election of 1860 and the secession of the southern states. Military strategy and tactics. Weapons, battles, leaders. Life of the common soldier. The politics of war. The economics of growth and destruction. Emancipation. Life behind the lines. Victory and defeat.

 

History of the U.S. Welfare State

HIST 254 - Michelmore, Mary (Molly)

A survey of the history of the U.S. welfare state from the 19th century through today. Topics include Social Security, welfare, the War on Poverty and Great Society, the Reagan-Era War on Welfare. Students analyze contemporary public-policy questions in their historical dimensions, and use historical knowledge to better understand contemporary political and policy debates. 

The History of the African-American People to 1877

HIST 259 - Dennie, Nneka D.

An intensive study of the African-American experience from the colonial period through Reconstruction. Special emphasis is given to the slave experience, free blacks, black abolitionists, development of African-American culture, Emancipation, Black Reconstruction, and racial attitudes.

Women and Slavery in the Black Atlantic

HIST 261 - Dennie, Nneka D.

From the 16th century to the 19th century, over 12 million Africans were shipped to the New World. Of those who survived the Middle Passage, fewer than 500,000 arrived in the United States; the vast majority were dispersed throughout the Caribbean and South America. The experiences of enslaved women, as well as the relationships between free and enslaved women, are as diverse as the African diaspora. Given the broad geographical scope of Africans' arrivals in the New World, this course offers a comparative examination of women and slavery in the Black Atlantic. Topics for consideration include black women's gendered experiences of slavery, white women's roles in slave societies, and women abolitionists. Students also examine how African and European conceptions of gender shaped the institution of slavery in the New World. Particular attention is devoted to slavery in West Africa, Barbados, Cuba, Brazil, and the United States.

Seminar: Topics in History

HIST 295A - Rupke, Nicolaas A.

A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Fall 2020, HIST 295A-01: Topic: Science, the Paranormal, and the Supernatural (3). Open to all class years and all majors. An exploration of the fascinating history of the uneasy relationship between science and its contested boundaries where fact and fiction overlap. In modern -- and especially late-modern -- times, science has become the adjudicator of truth -- truth in terms of fact and law-like rationality. The result has been a retreat of the occult, of many superstitions, and the uncovering of fallacies and frauds. Yet large sectors of modern society have remained enamored of the paranormal. Even scientific practitioners themselves, including Nobel Laureates, have kept alive a belief in telepathy, precognition, and such-like phenomena. Equally persistent, especially in religious circles, has been the conviction that miracles do happen; and, again, great scientists and medical practitioners have supported these and similar notions. More recently, the study of "wonders" has emerged as a separate field of inquiry: anomalistics. (HU) Rupke.

Seminar: Topics in History

HIST 295B - Rupke, Nicolaas A.

A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Fall 2020, HIST 295B-01: Topic: Animal Experimentation and Animal Rights in Historical Perspective (3) . As we deal with the place of animals in Western society, we more particularly trace the history of the use of animals as living objects of laboratory experimentation and explore the controversies that vivisectional practices have engendered. Do animals have rights? What might we think of animal-liberation activism? To what extent has animal experimentation been essential to the progress of science, especially medical science? We examine these questions in the wider context of humane movements and of organizations/societies that have been established for the prevention of cruelty to animals. (HU) Rupke .

Seminar in Russian History

HIST 322 - Bidlack, Richard H. (Rich)

Selected topics in Russian history, including but not limited to heroes and villains, Soviet biography, Stalin and Stalinism, the USSR in the Second World War and origins of the Cold War, the KGB, and the decline and fall of the Soviet Union and the re-emergence of Russia. May be repeated for degree and major credit if the topics are different.

Fall 2020, HIST 322-01: Seminar in Russian History: The Soviet Union in the Second World War and Origins of the Cold War (3). An examination of Soviet history from the start of the Second World War in 1939 until the death of Stalin and the armistice in the Korean War in 1953.  Students read and discuss a wide range of primary sources and scholarly studies and write a research paper on a topic of their choice with the instructor's approval. (HU) Bidlack .

Seminar: America in the 1960s: History and Memory

HIST 355 - Michelmore, Mary (Molly)

Hippies, Flower Power, Panthers, Berkeley, Free Love, Free Speech, Freedom Rides, Dylan, Woodstock, Vietnam, Jimi, Janice, Bobby and Martin. The events and images of the 1960s remain a powerful and often divisive force in America's recent history and national memory. This course moves beyond these stereotypical images of the "Sixties" to examine the decade's politics, culture and social movements. Topics include: the Civil Rights and Black Power movements, the Great Society and the War on Poverty, Vietnam, the Anti-War movement and the Counterculture, Massive Resistance, the "Silent Majority" and the Rise of the Conservative Right.

Seminar: The Struggle Over China's Environment

HIST 387 - Bello, David A.

The course covers the more recent periods of China's so-called "3,000 years of unsustainable growth" from about A.D. 618 into the present. Themes focus on China's historical experience with sedentary agriculture, fossil fuel and nuclear energy, wildlife and forest management, disease, water control, and major construction projects like the Great Wall.

Honors Thesis

HIST 493 - Michelmore, Mary (Molly)

Honors Thesis. Additional information is available at www.wlu.edu/history-department/about-the-program/honors-in-history .

Honors Thesis

HIST 493 - Brock, Michelle D. (Mikki)

Honors Thesis. Additional information is available at www.wlu.edu/history-department/about-the-program/honors-in-history .

Honors Thesis

HIST 493 - Gildner, Robert M. (Matt)

Honors Thesis. Additional information is available at www.wlu.edu/history-department/about-the-program/honors-in-history .

Honors Thesis

HIST 493 - Vise, Melissa E.

Honors Thesis. Additional information is available at www.wlu.edu/history-department/about-the-program/honors-in-history .

Honors Thesis

HIST 493 - Patch, William L. (Bill)

Honors Thesis. Additional information is available at www.wlu.edu/history-department/about-the-program/honors-in-history .

Spring 2020

See complete information about these courses in the course offerings database. For more information about a specific course, including course type, schedule and location, click on its title.

Dreaming of Paris (Revised as a result of COVID-19)

HIST 207 - Horowitz, Sarah

For the revised Spring 2020 offering:

"The City of Lights." "The City of Love." The capital of fashion. The world's most romantic city. The second most visited city in the world. For centuries, Paris has held an enduring appeal as a city of devoted to pleasure, intellectual life, culture, art and fashion. This course examines the appeal of Paris and some of the mythologies of the city, as well as the reality and the history behind the image.

Decline and Fall of the Soviet Union and the Resurgence of Russia

HIST 222 - Bidlack, Richard H. (Rich)

This course analyzes the reasons for the decline of the Soviet Union commencing in the latter part of the Brezhnev era and its collapse under the weight of the failed reforms of Gorbachev. It further traces the fragmentation of the USSR into 15 republics and the simultaneous devolution of authority within the Russian Republic under Yeltsin. The course concludes with the remarkable reassertion of state power under Putin up to the present. Students write an essay assessing the Yeltsin transition and engage in a class debate at the end of the term on the prospects for Russia's future.

Topics in European History

HIST 229 - Vise, Melissa E.

A course offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in European history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2020, HIST 229-01: Topic: The World of The Decameron (3). No prerequisite. In 1349, the year after the Black Death visited his homeland, Giovanni Boccaccio began work on the piece of literature for which he may be best remembered: The Decameron . A frame narrative set in plague-ridden Florence itself, the text's protagonists escape to the countryside and tell 100 stories over the course of 10 days. For centuries, historians of the plague turned to Boccaccio's description of the disease to craft their histories of plague. We investigate the historicity behind, historical merits of, and modern engagement with this giant of the Italian literary canon. Students perform a guided reading of most of the individual tales as well as of the structure of the text as a whole, study modern film remakes, complete team-based homework assignments, and submit a final podcast project. (HU) Vise.

 

The Art of Command during the American Civil War

HIST 244 - Myers, Barton A.

This seminar examines the role of military decision-making, the factors that shape it and determine its successes and failures, by focusing on four Civil War battles: Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and Wilderness. Extensive reading and writing. Battlefield tours.

Seminar: Topics in History

HIST 295 - Rupke, Nicolaas A.

A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Seminar in Politics and History: The Machiavellian Moment

HIST 307 - Peterson, David S.

Is it better to be loved or feared? How much of our destiny do we control? When are societies fit for self-rule? Can people be forced to be good? Niccolò Machiavelli, arguably the first and most controversial modern political theorist, raises issues of universal human and political concern. Yet he did so in a very specific context--the Florence of the Medici, Michelangelo, and Savonarola--at a time when Renaissance Italy stood at the summit of artistic brilliance and on the threshold of political collapse. We draw on Machiavelli's personal, political, historical, and literary writings, and readings in history and art, as a point of entry for exploring Machiavelli's republican vision of history and politics as he developed it in the Italian Renaissance and how it addresses such perennial issues as the corruption and regeneration of societies.

 

Seminar: 9/11 and Modern Terrorism

HIST 367 - Senechal, Roberta H.

Terrorism is a form of collective violence famously illustrated in the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington on September 11, 2001. This course provides an intensive interdisciplinary examination of the origins of the 9/11 attacks and the terrorist organization that launched them. The course also addresses the impact of the attacks and the future prospects of mass violence against civilians, as well as the role of the media in covering (and dramatizing) terrorism. Much of the course focuses on the social divisions and conflicts that lead to terrorism and its increasingly lethal nature over time. Topics include "old terrorism" (as seen in Northern Ireland and Algeria), "new terrorism" (such as that associated with Al Qaeda), the logic of terrorist recruitment, and the nature of and spread of weapons of mass destruction.

 

Directed Individual Study

HIST 401 - Bidlack, Richard H. (Rich)

A course which permits the student to follow a program of directed reading or research in an area not covered by other courses. May be repeated for degree credit with permission.