Degree Requirements

2023 - 2024 Catalog

We have the following degrees:

Earth and Environmental Geoscience major leading to BA degree

A major in Earth and Environmental Geoscience leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree is recommended for students interested in careers outside of science, including business, law, or policy, and requires 36 credits as follows:

  1. One course chosen from EEG 100, 101, or 102.
  2. In total, at least 21 credits in Earth and Environmental Geoscience at the 200 or 300 level. Of those, at least 3 credits at the 300 level are required.
  3. Additional credits chosen from Earth and Environmental Geoscience; Engineering; Mathematics; BIOL 105 or higher; CHEM 110; CHEM 165 or higher; CSCI 111 or higher; INTR 202; PHYS 111 or higher.
  4. All Earth and Environmental Geoscience courses above must be distributed as follows. (Courses may be used to meet more than one requirement in this category.)
    1. Field skills: at least one course chosen from EEG 230, 231, 275
    2. Solid earth: at least one course chosen from EEG 211, 250, 275, 360
    3. Hydrosphere/biosphere/atmosphere: at least one course chosen from EEG 141, 205, 311
    4. Surface processes: at least one course chosen from EEG 240, 247, 330
    5. At least two lab courses chosen from EEG 211, 240, 247, 250, 311, 330, 335
  1. One course chosen from:
  2.  

    • EEG 100 - Dynamic Earth: Introductory Geology with Field Emphasis
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      The study of Earth systems, our physical environment, and the processes shaping our planet with special emphasis on field study of the region near Lexington. Topics include: plate tectonics; the materials and structure of the Earth's crust; natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanoes; the origin of landforms; and the concept of deep time. Additional topics, with emphasis varying by instructor, include: climate change; weathering and erosion; water quality and movement; energy resources; geospatial and quantitative data analysis; and the relationship between humans and the environment. Preference given to first-years and sophomores. Not open to students with credit for EEG 101 or 102. Involves moderate hiking and other physical activities outside in all types of weather. Laboratory course.


    • EEG 101 - Dynamic Earth: Introductory Geology
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      The study of Earth systems, our physical environment, and the processes shaping our planet. Topics include: plate tectonics; the materials and structure of the Earth's crust; natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanoes; the origin of landforms; and the concept of deep time. Additional topics, with emphasis varying by instructor, include: climate change; weathering and erosion; water quality and movement; energy resources; geospatial and quantitative data analysis; and the relationship between humans and the environment.

      Involves moderate hiking and other physical activities outside in all types of weather. Additional fee required. Laboratory course.


    • EEG 102 - Sustainable Earth: Introductory Environmental Geology
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      The study of Earth systems, our physical environment, and the processes shaping our planet with special emphasis on environmental science and sustainability. There is special emphasis on field study of the region near Lexington. Depending on the instructor, various topics include: plate tectonics; the materials and structure of the Earth's crust; climate change; the nature of the Earth's interior; the origin of landforms; weathering and erosion; water quality and movement; natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanoes; energy resources; the concept of deep time; geospatial and quantitative data analysis; and the relationship between humans and the environment. Not open to students with credit for EEG 101 or 102. Involves moderate hiking and other physical activities outside in all types of weather. Laboratory course. 


  3. In total, at least 21 credits in Earth and Environmental Geoscience at the 200 or 300 level. Of those, at least 3 credits from Earth and Environmental Geoscience at the 300 level are required.
  4. Additional courses chosen from:
    • Earth and Environmental Geoscience
    • Engineering
    • Mathematics
    • BIOL 105 or higher
    • CHEM 110; CHEM 165 or higher
    • CSCI 111 or higher
    • INTR 202
    • PHYS 111 or higher
  5. All Earth and Environmental Geoscience courses above must be distributed as follows:
  6. (Courses may be used to meet more than one requirement in this category.)

    • Field skills:

      at least one course chosen from:

      • EEG 230 - Field Methods in the Appalachians
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102; and Earth and Evironmental Geoscience major

        An introduction to the study of geology in the field with special attention to the methods used by geologists to make, record, and interpret field observations. The course includes study of and field trips in the central Appalachian region.


      • EEG 231 - Environmental Field Methods
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introduction to the study of standard methods, equipment and tools used in environmental field investigations. Special attention is given to methods used by geoscientists to measure, record, and report field observations associated with groundwater, surface water, soil and air. Focus is given to the validity of data obtained using various investigative strategies as well as data handling and presentation. The course has an intensive field component using the local watershed as a model environmental system.


      • EEG 275 - Introductory Geophysics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        A review of the geophysical methods used to study the interior of the Earth, the magnetic field, isostasy, and earthquake seismology. Attention is given to the methods used in geophysics to collect and analyze data. A gravimeter, a magnetometer, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity equipment are used to collect field data. The data, corrections, and interpretations are incorporated into a technical report for each of the four surveys. PHYS 111 or 112 are recommended. Laboratory course.


    • Solid earth:

      at least one course chosen from:

      • EEG 211 - Earth Materials
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introduction to Earth materials, including minerals and rocks, with an emphasis on a hands-on approach to identifying and interpreting minerals and their associations in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Students learn the techniques and principles of hand sample identification, optical mineralogy and petrography, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 250 - Structural Geology and Tectonics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteMATH 101; and EEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Description and methods of analysis of large- and small-scale structural features of the Earth's crust. Topics also include the analysis of geometry, strain and stress as they relate to deformation in the earth. Rock mechanics, application of structural geology in environmental engineering and resource exploration, geometric and computational techniques used in structural analysis, interpretation of geologic maps, and the structural development of mountain systems are also covered. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 275 - Introductory Geophysics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        A review of the geophysical methods used to study the interior of the Earth, the magnetic field, isostasy, and earthquake seismology. Attention is given to the methods used in geophysics to collect and analyze data. A gravimeter, a magnetometer, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity equipment are used to collect field data. The data, corrections, and interpretations are incorporated into a technical report for each of the four surveys. PHYS 111 or 112 are recommended. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 360 - Tectonics and Thermochronology
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introduction to mountain belts and thermochronologic techniques used to quantify tectonic processes. Topics include: orogenic wedges, metamorphic core complexes, rifting, strike-slip systems, orogenic plateaus, the relationship between tectonics and climate, and the use of bedrock and detrital thermochronology to measure rates of faulting, erosion, and exhumation. Concepts are discussed in the context of natural examples, including the Appalachians, the European Alps, the Himalaya, the Andes, and the Basin and Range Province of the southwestern United States.


    • Hydrosphere/biosphere/atmosphere:

      at least one course chosen from:

      • EEG 141 - Global Climate Change
        FDRSC Science, Math, CS Distribution
        Credits3

        A study of Earth's complex climate system and the impact of human activities on future climates. Through readings, discussions, data analyses and modeling exercises, the past and future changes in temperature, ocean circulation, rainfall, storminess, biogeochemistry, glacial ice extent and sea level are explored.


      • EEG 205 - History and Evolution of the Earth
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introductory examination of the origin and physical evolution of the Earth as inferred from the rock record. Areas of particular emphasis include: (1) the origin of the solar system and differentiation of the planets; (2) the evolution of the terrestrial atmosphere and hydrosphere; (3) explanations for the development of life; (4) organic evolution and interpretations of mass extinctions; (5) the changing configuration of continental blocks and ocean basins by continental drift, seafloor spreading, and plate tectonics; and (6) the growth of continental blocks and their mountain systems.


      • EEG 311 - Earth and Environmental Geochemistry
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        This course emphasizes the principles and tools of the chemical composition of Earth materials to interpret petrogenesis. The course focuses on processes occurring below and at the Earth's surface. Topics include: crystal chemistry, magmatic and metamorphic processes, trace element and isotope geochemistry, oxidation and reduction, and water-rock interactions. The laboratory includes both a local field and laboratory component and focuses on using analytical techniques to evaluate chemical composition including electron microscopy, ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Laboratory course.


    • Surface processes:

      at least one course chosen from:

      • EEG 240 - Hydrology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Systems and processes of water movement on and below the Earth's surface. Encompasses the theoretical and applied aspects of soil moisture, runoff, flooding, groundwater movement, and water-well use. Numerical evaluation of flow properties from field and lab data describing water movement in soils, aquifers, and streams.


      • EEG 247 - Geomorphology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Investigation of earth-surface landforms and processes from maps, aerial photographs, and digital data. Includes numerical analysis and modeling of surface process systems and the deep history of our palimpsest Appalachian landscape. Laboratory activities include identification and interpretation of topography, field measurements of soil, unconsolidated materials, landform shapes, and erosional processes. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 330 - Sedimentation and Stratigraphy
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Properties, origins, and dynamics of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Correlation, organization, and historical interpretation of the sedimentary rock record. Field and laboratory analyses of sedimentary rocks. Laboratory course.


    • At least two lab courses chosen from:
      • EEG 211 - Earth Materials
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introduction to Earth materials, including minerals and rocks, with an emphasis on a hands-on approach to identifying and interpreting minerals and their associations in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Students learn the techniques and principles of hand sample identification, optical mineralogy and petrography, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 240 - Hydrology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Systems and processes of water movement on and below the Earth's surface. Encompasses the theoretical and applied aspects of soil moisture, runoff, flooding, groundwater movement, and water-well use. Numerical evaluation of flow properties from field and lab data describing water movement in soils, aquifers, and streams.


      • EEG 247 - Geomorphology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Investigation of earth-surface landforms and processes from maps, aerial photographs, and digital data. Includes numerical analysis and modeling of surface process systems and the deep history of our palimpsest Appalachian landscape. Laboratory activities include identification and interpretation of topography, field measurements of soil, unconsolidated materials, landform shapes, and erosional processes. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 250 - Structural Geology and Tectonics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteMATH 101; and EEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Description and methods of analysis of large- and small-scale structural features of the Earth's crust. Topics also include the analysis of geometry, strain and stress as they relate to deformation in the earth. Rock mechanics, application of structural geology in environmental engineering and resource exploration, geometric and computational techniques used in structural analysis, interpretation of geologic maps, and the structural development of mountain systems are also covered. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 311 - Earth and Environmental Geochemistry
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        This course emphasizes the principles and tools of the chemical composition of Earth materials to interpret petrogenesis. The course focuses on processes occurring below and at the Earth's surface. Topics include: crystal chemistry, magmatic and metamorphic processes, trace element and isotope geochemistry, oxidation and reduction, and water-rock interactions. The laboratory includes both a local field and laboratory component and focuses on using analytical techniques to evaluate chemical composition including electron microscopy, ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 330 - Sedimentation and Stratigraphy
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Properties, origins, and dynamics of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Correlation, organization, and historical interpretation of the sedimentary rock record. Field and laboratory analyses of sedimentary rocks. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 335 - Petroleum Geology and Geophysics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEarth and Environmental Geoscience major or Environmental Studies major; and EEG 100, EEG 101, EE 102, or EEG 105

        A survey of the theory and practice of petroleum geology and geophysics. Topics covered include the nature and origin of petroleum, a study of where oil and gas accumulate from the perspective of basin analysis, and the basic principles of reflection seismology and petrophysics. The key petroleum system elements of source, charge, seal, reservoir and trap are studied within the context of how a geologist or geophysicist goes about exploring for and developing petroleum accumulations. Emphasis is placed on the Geology use of industry software and data to analyze geologic features, deposits, and basins that are relevant to petroleum exploration and production. Laboratory course.


Earth and Environmental Geoscience major leading to BS degree

A major in Earth and Environmental Geoscience leading to a Bachelor of Science degree is recommended for students pursuing graduate school or employment in geology and consists of at least 53 credits as follows.

  1. One course chosen from EEG 100, 101, or 102
  2. CHEM 110, MATH 101, PHYS 111
  3. At least 8 additional credits chosen from BIOL 111/113; BIOL 210 or higher; CHEM 165; CHEM 211 or higher; PHYS 112; PHYS 202 or higher
  4. One course chosen from CSCI 121, EEG 260, INTR 202, or MATH 102 or higher
  5. At least 24 credits in Earth and Environmental Geoscience at the 200 or 300 level and at least 7 credits at the 300 level, distributed as follows. (Courses may be used to meet more than one requirement in this category.)
    1. Field skills: one course chosen from EEG 230, 231, 275
    2. Solid earth: one course chosen from EEG 211, 250, 275, 360
    3. Hydrosphere/biosphere/atmosphere: one course chosen from EEG 141, 205, 311
    4. Surface processes: one course chosen from EEG 240, 247, 330
    5. Two lab courses chosen from EEG 211, 240, 247, 250
    6. One lab course chosen from EEG 311, 330, 335
  6. Additional credits chosen from Earth and Environmental Geoscience; Engineering; Mathematics; BIOL 111/113; BIOL 140: BIOL 210 or higher; CHEM 106; CHEM 156; CHEM 165 or higher; CSCI 112 or higher; PHYS 150 or higher
  7. A comprehensive examination in Earth and Environmental Geoscience.
  1. One course chosen from:
  2.  

    • EEG 100 - Dynamic Earth: Introductory Geology with Field Emphasis
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      The study of Earth systems, our physical environment, and the processes shaping our planet with special emphasis on field study of the region near Lexington. Topics include: plate tectonics; the materials and structure of the Earth's crust; natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanoes; the origin of landforms; and the concept of deep time. Additional topics, with emphasis varying by instructor, include: climate change; weathering and erosion; water quality and movement; energy resources; geospatial and quantitative data analysis; and the relationship between humans and the environment. Preference given to first-years and sophomores. Not open to students with credit for EEG 101 or 102. Involves moderate hiking and other physical activities outside in all types of weather. Laboratory course.


    • EEG 101 - Dynamic Earth: Introductory Geology
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      The study of Earth systems, our physical environment, and the processes shaping our planet. Topics include: plate tectonics; the materials and structure of the Earth's crust; natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanoes; the origin of landforms; and the concept of deep time. Additional topics, with emphasis varying by instructor, include: climate change; weathering and erosion; water quality and movement; energy resources; geospatial and quantitative data analysis; and the relationship between humans and the environment.

      Involves moderate hiking and other physical activities outside in all types of weather. Additional fee required. Laboratory course.


    • EEG 102 - Sustainable Earth: Introductory Environmental Geology
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      The study of Earth systems, our physical environment, and the processes shaping our planet with special emphasis on environmental science and sustainability. There is special emphasis on field study of the region near Lexington. Depending on the instructor, various topics include: plate tectonics; the materials and structure of the Earth's crust; climate change; the nature of the Earth's interior; the origin of landforms; weathering and erosion; water quality and movement; natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanoes; energy resources; the concept of deep time; geospatial and quantitative data analysis; and the relationship between humans and the environment. Not open to students with credit for EEG 101 or 102. Involves moderate hiking and other physical activities outside in all types of weather. Laboratory course. 


  3. Additional required courses:
  4.  

    • CHEM 110 - General Chemistry
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      This is a foundational course for those pursuing upper-level chemistry and biochemistry. Fundamental vocabulary, concepts, and principles that appear throughout the chemistry and biochemistry curriculum are introduced. Topics include basic chemistry calculations, quantum mechanics in chemistry, molecular structure, chemical thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics. In addition, a range of spectroscopic methods including UV-Vis, Atomic Absorption, and XRF are employed in the laboratory. While no previous knowledge of chemistry is required, some background is advantageous. Laboratory course with fee.


    • MATH 101 - Calculus I
      FDRFM Math and Computer Science Foundation
      Credits3

      An introduction to the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem. Sections meet either 3 or 4 days a week, with material in the latter presented at a more casual pace.


    • PHYS 111 - General Physics I
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      An introduction to classical mechanics. Topics include kinematics, Newton's laws, solids, fluids, and wave motion.


  5. At least 8 additional credits chosen from:
  6.  

    • BIOL 111 - Fundamentals of Biology
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and first year standing. Upper division students must request an eligibility override
      CorequisiteBIOL 113 - Biology Laboratory

      An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication applied to topics that vary among sections and terms. Specific subjects, chosen from within the scope of modern biological investigation according to the expertise of individual instructors, are examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. Suitable for First-Years interested in pursuing a major in biology, neuroscience or environmental studies or the pre-health curriculum. This course, and its companion laboratory (BIOL 113), are prerequisites for all higher level biology courses.


    • BIOL 113 - Biology Laboratory
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and first year standing. Upper division students must request an eligibility override
      CorequisiteBIOL 111 - Fundamentals of Biology

      A laboratory course to accompany BIOL 111. Students are trained in basic techniques of biological research by demonstrations and investigatory exercises, including data analysis and scientific communication. Limited seating available for sophomores, juniors, and seniors. All students should contact the Biology department, for consent as soon as the class schedule is available and before registration begins.


    • BIOL 210 - Human Parasitology

      or higher

      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and BIOL 113

      A survey of the phenomenon of animal parasitism, including discussion of the chief distinguishing structures, life cycles, and functions of major pathogenic parasites infecting humans and other animals.


    • CHEM 211 - Analytical Chemistry

      or higher

      Credits4
      Prerequisiteinstructor consent

      Emphasis on inorganic systems exhibiting aqueous solution equilibria. Topics covered include acid/base reactions, redox reactions, complexation, precipitation reactions, and solution equilibrium. Laboratory work emphasizes basic wet-chemical as well as more sophisticated instrumental techniques of chemical quantitative analysis with appropriate statistical methods of data handling. Laboratory course with fee.


    • PHYS 112 - General Physics II
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4
      PrerequisitePHYS 111

      A continuation of PHYS 111. Topics include thermodynamics, electricity, magnetism, and optics.


    • PHYS 202 - Relativity

      or higher

      Credits3
      PrerequisitePHYS 112

      An examination of the special theory of relativity. Emphasis is placed on kinematic effects of the theory, conservation of momentum, conservation of energy, and electromagnetic implications of the theory. A brief introduction to general relativity is entertained.


  7. One course chosen from:
  8.  

    • CSCI 121 - Scientific Computing
      FDRFM Math and Computer Science Foundation
      Credits4

      An introduction to computer programming for scientific applications and a survey of the main methodological areas of scientific computation. The course provides the tools needed for students to use computers effectively in scientific work, whether in physics, chemistry, mathematics, economics, biology, psychology, or any field involving quantitative work. Programming in Matlab, a scientific-computing software package, with a focus on topics relevant to students' major fields of study. Lectures and formal labs. Not open to students who have successfully completed CSCI 211 or greater.


    • EEG 260 - GIS and Remote Sensing
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteEarth and Environmental Geoscience major or Environmental Studies major; and EEG 100, EEG 101, EE 102, or EEG 105

      A laboratory course introducing the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing in geological/environmental analyses and decision making. Students use state-of-the-art software with a wide variety of spatial geologic, environmental, economic and topographic data derived from satellites; remote databases and published maps to evaluate geologic conditions; local landscape processes; environmental conditions; and hypothetical land-use cases.


    • INTR 202 - Applied Statistics
      Credits3

      An examination of the principal applications of statistics in accounting, business, economics, and politics. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability, estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis.


    • MATH 102 - Calculus II

      or higher

      FDRFM Math and Computer Science Foundation
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteMATH 101 with a grade of C or greater or MATH 102 placement

      A continuation of MATH 101, including techniques and applications of integration, transcendental functions, and infinite series.


  9. At least 24 credits in Earth and Environmental Geoscience at the 200 or 300 level and at least 7 credits at the 300 level, distributed as follows.
  10. (Courses may be used to meet more than one requirement in this category.)

    • Field skills:

       one course chosen from:

      • EEG 230 - Field Methods in the Appalachians
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102; and Earth and Evironmental Geoscience major

        An introduction to the study of geology in the field with special attention to the methods used by geologists to make, record, and interpret field observations. The course includes study of and field trips in the central Appalachian region.


      • EEG 231 - Environmental Field Methods
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introduction to the study of standard methods, equipment and tools used in environmental field investigations. Special attention is given to methods used by geoscientists to measure, record, and report field observations associated with groundwater, surface water, soil and air. Focus is given to the validity of data obtained using various investigative strategies as well as data handling and presentation. The course has an intensive field component using the local watershed as a model environmental system.


      • EEG 275 - Introductory Geophysics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        A review of the geophysical methods used to study the interior of the Earth, the magnetic field, isostasy, and earthquake seismology. Attention is given to the methods used in geophysics to collect and analyze data. A gravimeter, a magnetometer, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity equipment are used to collect field data. The data, corrections, and interpretations are incorporated into a technical report for each of the four surveys. PHYS 111 or 112 are recommended. Laboratory course.


    • Solid earth:

      one course chosen from:

      • EEG 211 - Earth Materials
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introduction to Earth materials, including minerals and rocks, with an emphasis on a hands-on approach to identifying and interpreting minerals and their associations in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Students learn the techniques and principles of hand sample identification, optical mineralogy and petrography, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 250 - Structural Geology and Tectonics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteMATH 101; and EEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Description and methods of analysis of large- and small-scale structural features of the Earth's crust. Topics also include the analysis of geometry, strain and stress as they relate to deformation in the earth. Rock mechanics, application of structural geology in environmental engineering and resource exploration, geometric and computational techniques used in structural analysis, interpretation of geologic maps, and the structural development of mountain systems are also covered. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 275 - Introductory Geophysics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        A review of the geophysical methods used to study the interior of the Earth, the magnetic field, isostasy, and earthquake seismology. Attention is given to the methods used in geophysics to collect and analyze data. A gravimeter, a magnetometer, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity equipment are used to collect field data. The data, corrections, and interpretations are incorporated into a technical report for each of the four surveys. PHYS 111 or 112 are recommended. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 360 - Tectonics and Thermochronology
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introduction to mountain belts and thermochronologic techniques used to quantify tectonic processes. Topics include: orogenic wedges, metamorphic core complexes, rifting, strike-slip systems, orogenic plateaus, the relationship between tectonics and climate, and the use of bedrock and detrital thermochronology to measure rates of faulting, erosion, and exhumation. Concepts are discussed in the context of natural examples, including the Appalachians, the European Alps, the Himalaya, the Andes, and the Basin and Range Province of the southwestern United States.


    • Hydrosphere/biosphere/atmosphere:

      one course chosen from:

      • EEG 141 - Global Climate Change
        FDRSC Science, Math, CS Distribution
        Credits3

        A study of Earth's complex climate system and the impact of human activities on future climates. Through readings, discussions, data analyses and modeling exercises, the past and future changes in temperature, ocean circulation, rainfall, storminess, biogeochemistry, glacial ice extent and sea level are explored.


      • EEG 205 - History and Evolution of the Earth
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introductory examination of the origin and physical evolution of the Earth as inferred from the rock record. Areas of particular emphasis include: (1) the origin of the solar system and differentiation of the planets; (2) the evolution of the terrestrial atmosphere and hydrosphere; (3) explanations for the development of life; (4) organic evolution and interpretations of mass extinctions; (5) the changing configuration of continental blocks and ocean basins by continental drift, seafloor spreading, and plate tectonics; and (6) the growth of continental blocks and their mountain systems.


      • EEG 311 - Earth and Environmental Geochemistry
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        This course emphasizes the principles and tools of the chemical composition of Earth materials to interpret petrogenesis. The course focuses on processes occurring below and at the Earth's surface. Topics include: crystal chemistry, magmatic and metamorphic processes, trace element and isotope geochemistry, oxidation and reduction, and water-rock interactions. The laboratory includes both a local field and laboratory component and focuses on using analytical techniques to evaluate chemical composition including electron microscopy, ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Laboratory course.


    • Surface processes:

      one course chosen from:

      • EEG 240 - Hydrology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Systems and processes of water movement on and below the Earth's surface. Encompasses the theoretical and applied aspects of soil moisture, runoff, flooding, groundwater movement, and water-well use. Numerical evaluation of flow properties from field and lab data describing water movement in soils, aquifers, and streams.


      • EEG 247 - Geomorphology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Investigation of earth-surface landforms and processes from maps, aerial photographs, and digital data. Includes numerical analysis and modeling of surface process systems and the deep history of our palimpsest Appalachian landscape. Laboratory activities include identification and interpretation of topography, field measurements of soil, unconsolidated materials, landform shapes, and erosional processes. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 330 - Sedimentation and Stratigraphy
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Properties, origins, and dynamics of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Correlation, organization, and historical interpretation of the sedimentary rock record. Field and laboratory analyses of sedimentary rocks. Laboratory course.


    • Two lab courses chosen from:

       

      • EEG 211 - Earth Materials
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        An introduction to Earth materials, including minerals and rocks, with an emphasis on a hands-on approach to identifying and interpreting minerals and their associations in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Students learn the techniques and principles of hand sample identification, optical mineralogy and petrography, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 240 - Hydrology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Systems and processes of water movement on and below the Earth's surface. Encompasses the theoretical and applied aspects of soil moisture, runoff, flooding, groundwater movement, and water-well use. Numerical evaluation of flow properties from field and lab data describing water movement in soils, aquifers, and streams.


      • EEG 247 - Geomorphology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Investigation of earth-surface landforms and processes from maps, aerial photographs, and digital data. Includes numerical analysis and modeling of surface process systems and the deep history of our palimpsest Appalachian landscape. Laboratory activities include identification and interpretation of topography, field measurements of soil, unconsolidated materials, landform shapes, and erosional processes. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 250 - Structural Geology and Tectonics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteMATH 101; and EEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Description and methods of analysis of large- and small-scale structural features of the Earth's crust. Topics also include the analysis of geometry, strain and stress as they relate to deformation in the earth. Rock mechanics, application of structural geology in environmental engineering and resource exploration, geometric and computational techniques used in structural analysis, interpretation of geologic maps, and the structural development of mountain systems are also covered. Laboratory course.


    • One lab course chosen from:

       

      • EEG 311 - Earth and Environmental Geochemistry
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        This course emphasizes the principles and tools of the chemical composition of Earth materials to interpret petrogenesis. The course focuses on processes occurring below and at the Earth's surface. Topics include: crystal chemistry, magmatic and metamorphic processes, trace element and isotope geochemistry, oxidation and reduction, and water-rock interactions. The laboratory includes both a local field and laboratory component and focuses on using analytical techniques to evaluate chemical composition including electron microscopy, ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 330 - Sedimentation and Stratigraphy
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEEG 100, EEG 101, or EEG 102

        Properties, origins, and dynamics of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Correlation, organization, and historical interpretation of the sedimentary rock record. Field and laboratory analyses of sedimentary rocks. Laboratory course.


      • EEG 335 - Petroleum Geology and Geophysics
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteEarth and Environmental Geoscience major or Environmental Studies major; and EEG 100, EEG 101, EE 102, or EEG 105

        A survey of the theory and practice of petroleum geology and geophysics. Topics covered include the nature and origin of petroleum, a study of where oil and gas accumulate from the perspective of basin analysis, and the basic principles of reflection seismology and petrophysics. The key petroleum system elements of source, charge, seal, reservoir and trap are studied within the context of how a geologist or geophysicist goes about exploring for and developing petroleum accumulations. Emphasis is placed on the Geology use of industry software and data to analyze geologic features, deposits, and basins that are relevant to petroleum exploration and production. Laboratory course.


  11. Additional credits chosen from:
    • Earth and Environmental Geoscience

    • Engineering

    • Mathematics

    • BIOL 111 - Fundamentals of Biology
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and first year standing. Upper division students must request an eligibility override
      CorequisiteBIOL 113 - Biology Laboratory

      An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication applied to topics that vary among sections and terms. Specific subjects, chosen from within the scope of modern biological investigation according to the expertise of individual instructors, are examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. Suitable for First-Years interested in pursuing a major in biology, neuroscience or environmental studies or the pre-health curriculum. This course, and its companion laboratory (BIOL 113), are prerequisites for all higher level biology courses.


    • BIOL 113 - Biology Laboratory
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and first year standing. Upper division students must request an eligibility override
      CorequisiteBIOL 111 - Fundamentals of Biology

      A laboratory course to accompany BIOL 111. Students are trained in basic techniques of biological research by demonstrations and investigatory exercises, including data analysis and scientific communication. Limited seating available for sophomores, juniors, and seniors. All students should contact the Biology department, for consent as soon as the class schedule is available and before registration begins.


    • BIOL 210 - Human Parasitology

      or higher

      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and BIOL 113

      A survey of the phenomenon of animal parasitism, including discussion of the chief distinguishing structures, life cycles, and functions of major pathogenic parasites infecting humans and other animals.


    • CHEM 106 - Disorder and Chaos
      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      An interdisciplinary introduction to the concepts underlying nonlinear dynamics and fractal geometry emphasizing the theories of chaos and complexity. Students study mathematical and computer modeling of physical and social systems and interpret the results of these models using graphical methods and written descriptions. Methods and concepts from calculus are demonstrated but no mathematics beyond high-school algebra is assumed. The laboratory component consists of a series of projects from diverse areas of the natural sciences, including pendulum motion, oscillating chemical reactions, and natural growth patterns. Laboratory course. Additional course fee.


    • CHEM 156 - Science in Art
      FDRSC Science, Math, CS Distribution
      Credits3
      Prerequisiteinstructor consent

      This course develops students' fundamental understanding of certain physical, chemical, biological, and geological concepts and utilizes that vocabulary and knowledge to discuss 17th-century Dutch art. The emphasis is on key aspects of optics, light, and chemical bonding needed to understand how a painting works and how art conservators analyze paintings in terms of conservation and authenticity, using techniques such as X-ray radiography, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, infrared microscopy, infrared reflectography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, UV photography, and laser ablation methods. When possible, the course develops modern notions of science with those of the 17th century in order to see how 17th-century science influenced 17th-century art.


    • CSCI 112 - Fundamentals of Programming II

      or higher

      FDRSC Science, Math, CS Distribution
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCSCI 111

      A continuation of CSCI 111. Emphasis is on the use and implementation of data structures, introductory algorithm analysis, and object-oriented design and programming with Python. Laboratory course.


    • PHYS 150 - The Immense Journey: Harmonices Mundi

      or higher

      FDRSL Lab Science Distribution
      Credits4

      The classical astronomy of the solar system is traced by a study of Greek astronomy and the revolutionary ideas of Kepler and Newton. The apparent and real motions of the earth, moon, and planets are studied in detail, as well as special phenomena such as eclipses, tides, and objects such as comets and asteroids. Emphasis is on comprehension and application of principles rather than memorization of facts. The laboratory stresses the observational aspects of astronomy. Elementary geometry, algebra, and trigonometry are used in the course.


  12. A comprehensive examination in Earth and Environmental Geoscience.