Cleve Hickman Professor Emeritus

Cleve Hickman

Professor Emeritus of Biology, Washington & Lee University, 1994 to present; Professor of Biology, Washington & Lee University, 1969-1994; Associate Professor of Biology, Washington & Lee University, 1967-69; Associate Professor of Zoology, University of Alberta, 1963-67; Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of Alberta, 1958-63


A.B. DePauw University,1950 M.Sc. University of New Hampshire

Ph.D. University of British Columbia, 1958


After terminating an early undergraduate venture toward a musical career , I resettled into zoology, spending the next eight years in graduate school, interrupted only by a two year period with the army during the Korean War. Following completion of my doctoral dissertation on thyroid function in marine flounder, I continued research in fish physiology, concentrating especially on kidney function. Approximately 20 publications arose from this work. Since 1985 my research has been in the Galápagos Islands, focusing on the systematics and distribution of the marine invertebrate fauna. This led after my retirement from teaching to the publication of three field guides to the echinoderms, crustaceans, and molluscs of the Galápagos Islands in the Galápagos Marine Life Series. All three field guides have been translated and published in Spanish. A fourth field guide to the corals and other radiate invertebrates of Galápagos will be published in 2008.

Throughout my teaching career, I authored three textbooks of zoology. These were Integrated Principles of Zoology, now in its 13th edition, published initially by C.V. Mosby and later editions by McGraw-Hill. It has been translated into Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese; Other textbooks included Biology of Animals, W.C. Brown, through seven editions (no longer in print); Animal Diversity, Mc-Graw Hill, now in 4th edition; and laboratory manuals to accompany these texts.


University of Alberta: Comparative animal physiology (principal responsibility); Environmental physiology, General Zoology; Marine Biology (field course).

Washington & Lee University: Animal physiology, General zoology, Embryology, Field Zoology, Ecology, Physiology and behavior, Supervised field study (Galapagos field trip)

Selected Publications

Recent Articles

Kensley, B. and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 2001. A new species of Calaxius Sakal & Saint Laurent, 1989, from the Galapagos islands (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 114(2):484-488.

Calder, D.R., J.J. Mallinson, K. Collins, and C.P. Hickman. 2003. Additions to the hydroids (Cnidaria) of the Galapagos, with a list of species reported from the islands. Journal of Natural History, 37:1173-1218.

Fautin, D.G., C.P. Hickman, Jr., M. Daly, and T. Molodtsova. 2007. Shallow-water sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and tube anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Ceriantharia) of the Galápagos Islands. Pacific Science 61(4):549-573.

Hickman, C.P., Jr. 2007. The evolutionary response of marine invertebrates in Galapagos to insular isolation. (In press) Galapagos Research.

Reimer, J.D. and C.P. Hickman, Jr.2007. Preliminary survey of zooxanthellate zoanthids (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia) of the Galapagos and associated symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.). (In press) Galapagos Research.

Breedy, O. and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 2007. Octocoral research in the Galápagos Islands. (In press) Galapagos Research.

Hoar, W.S. and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 1983. A Laboratory Companion for General and Comparative Physiology, ed. 3. 340 pp. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Hickman, C.P., Jr., L.S. Roberts and A. Larson. 1998. Biology of Animals, ed. 7. 766 pp. McGraw- Hill, Dubuque, IA (text terminated with this edition)

Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1998 A Field Guide to Sea Stars and other Echinoderms of Galapagos, 83 pp, Sugar Spring Press.

Hickman, C.P. Jr, and Y. Finet, 1999. A Field Guide to Marine Molluscs of Galapagos, 150 pp, Sugar Spring Press

Hickman, C.P. Jr. and T.L. Zimmerman, 2000. A Field Guide to Crustaceans of Galapagos, 156 pp. Sugar Spring Press.

Hickman, C.P., Jr.; L.S. Roberts, A. Larson, H. I'Anson, and D. Eisenhour. 2006. Integrated Principles of Zoology, ed. 13. 882 pp. McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, IA

Hickman, C.P., Jr. and L.B. Kats. 2006.. Laboratory Studies in Integrated Zoology, ed. 13. 436 pp. McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, IA

Hickman, C.P., Jr., L.S. Roberts, S. Keen, A. Larson, and D. Eisenhour. 2006. Animal Diversity, ed. 4. 460 pp. McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, IA.

Hickman, C.P., Jr. and L.B. Kats. 2007. Laboratory Studies in Animal Diversity, ed. 4. 278 pp. McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, IA.

Earlier Publications

Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1959. The larval development of the sand sole, (Psettichthys melanostictus). Fisheries Research Papers, Washington Department of Fisheries, April, 1959: 38-47.


Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1959. The osmoregulatory role of the thyroid gland in the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus. Canadian Journal Zoology, 37:997-1060.


Hickman, C.P, Jr. 1961. The conversion ratio as a discriminatory test for thyroid activity in fish. Nature, 189:1012- 1013.


Evans, R.M., F.C. Purdie, and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 1961. The effect of temperature and photoperiod on the respiratory metabolism of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 40:107-118.

Meisner, H.M., and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 1962. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on the serum proteins of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 40:127-130.

Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1962. Effect of salinity on the metabolic rate of gill and kidney of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus. American Zoologist, 2:130.

Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1962. Influence of environment on the metabolism of iodine in fish. General and Comparative Endocrinology, Supplement 1,48-62.

Hickman, C.P., Hickman, C.P., Jr., R.A. McNabb, J.S. Nelson, E.D. Van Breeman, and D. Comfort. 1964. Effect of cold acclimation on electrolyte distribution in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Canadian Journal of Zoology 42:577-597.

Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1964. Seasonal change in electrolyte balance in the white sucker, Catostomus commersonni. American Zoologist, 4:65.

Konishi, J. and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 1964. Temperature acclimation in the central nervous system of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 13:433-442.


Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1965. Studies on renal function in freshwater teleost fish. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, vol. 3, ser. 4:213-236.


Hammond, B.R., and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 1966. The effect of physical conditioning on the metabolism of lactate, phosphate, and glucose in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 23:65-83.


Jacoby, G.H., and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 1966. Transformation reactions and spontaneous labelling of iodophenols during thin layer chromatography of radioiodine. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 44:499-505.


Jacoby, G.H., and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 1966. A study of the circulating iodocompounds of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, by the method of isotopic equilibrium. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 7:245-254.


Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1968. Glomerular filtration and urine flow in the euryhaline southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, in seawater. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 46:427-437.

Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1968. Urine composition and kidney tubular function in southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, in seawater. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 46:339-455.

Hickman, C.P., Jr. 1968. Ingestion, intestinal absorption, and elimination of seawater and salts in the southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 46:457-466.

Huang, C-T., and C.P. Hickman, Jr. 1968. Binding of inorganic iodide to the plasma proteins of teleost fishes. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 25:1651-1666. .

Hickman, C.P., Jr. and B.F. Trump. 1969. The kidney, pp. 91-239, in W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall, eds, Fish Physiology, vol. 1, New York, Academic Press.