Biology Minor Requirements

2022 - 2023 Catalog

We have the following degrees:

Animal Biology minor

A minor in Animal Biology requires completion of 7 courses as follows. A student may not complete a minor in biology with either a major in biology or a major in neuroscience. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor. Sample 200- and 300-level graded work must be collected into a portfolio for assessment upon completion of the course requirements before a minor will be approved by the department.

1. Required courses: BIOL 111, 113
2. Zoology: BIOL 240, 244S, 245S, or 247S
3. Animal behavior: BIOL 243
4. Field biology: one course chosen from BIOL 241, 242, and, when appropriate, 297
5. Evolution: BIOL 340 or 340S
6. Structure related to function: BIOL 261S, 355 or 362

  1. Required courses
  2.  

  3. Zoology
  4.  

    •  - 

    • or

    •  - 

    • BIOL 244S - Invertebrate Zoology at St. Andrews
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteAn average grade of at least 3.0 in BIOL 111 and 113, a 3.000 cumulative GPA, and permission of the Department of Biology

      This course surveys the major invertebrate groups from an evolutionary perspective, emphasizing the diversity of body plans while demonstrating how common functional requirements such as feeding, respiration, excretion, and reproduction are achieved. The economic, social, and scientific impact that invertebrates have on human society is identified. Practical exercises reinforce and complement the lectures in this course. Taught at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland with final grade assigned by W&L biology faculty.


    • BIOL 245S - Ecology at St Andrews
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteAn average grade of at least 3.0 in BIOL 111 and 113, a 3.000 cumulative GPA, and permission of the Department of Biology

      Basic concepts in population and community ecology and how they relate to biodiversity. Fundamental ecological concepts covered include population regulation, intra- and inter-specific competition, species niches, taxonomic and functional diversity.


    • or

    • BIOL 247S - Vertebrate Zoology at St. Andrews
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteAn average grade of at least 3.0 in BIOL 111 and 113, a 3.000 cumulative GPA, and consent of the Department of Biology

      This course explores the diversity of vertebrate animals, beginning with the closest relatives of vertebrates and the evolutionary origins of the group. A detailed look at the defining characteristics of the body plans and lifestyles of the key vertebrate groups illustrate how they carry out basic animal functions in similar or different ways. This is put in an evolutionary context to reveal the patterns and trends in the vertebrates as a whole, while also highlighting current phylogenetic controversies. The module then explores some common themes across the key groups, starting with the developmental biology of some vertebrate model systems and the lessons we can learn from these. We also see how the highly developed brains of vertebrates have allowed the evolution of astonishing sensory capacities and of complex behaviors, and how these are different (or not) from invertebrates.


  5. Animal behavior
  6.  

  7. Field biology: one course chosen from
  8.  

  9. Evolution
  10.  

  11. Structure related to function
  12.  

Ecology minor

A minor in Ecology requires completion of 7 courses as follows. A student may not complete a minor in biology with either a major in biology or a major in neuroscience. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor. Sample 200- and 300-level graded work must be collected into a portfolio for assessment upon completion of the course requirements before a minor will be approved by the department.

1. Required courses: BIOL 111, 113
2. Cell biology or evolution: one course chosen from BIOL 220, 340 or 340S
3. Ecology: BIOL 217, 245 or 245S
4. Field biology: one course chosen from BIOL 229, 241, 242, and, when appropriate, 297
5. Plant physiology or animal behavior: BIOL 225 or 243
6. Advanced level: one course chosen from BIOL 322, 325, 330 or 332

  1. Required courses
  2.  

  3. Cell biology or evolution: one course chosen from
  4.  

  5. Ecology
  6.  

    •  - 

    •  - 

    • or

    • BIOL 245S - Ecology at St Andrews
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteAn average grade of at least 3.0 in BIOL 111 and 113, a 3.000 cumulative GPA, and permission of the Department of Biology

      Basic concepts in population and community ecology and how they relate to biodiversity. Fundamental ecological concepts covered include population regulation, intra- and inter-specific competition, species niches, taxonomic and functional diversity.


  7. Field biology: one course chosen from
  8.  

    • BIOL 229 - Observing Ireland's Coastal Biomes
      FDRHA
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 or ARTS 111 or instructor consent

      Coastal regions offer a rich opportunity to experience a variety of biotic communities, from marine tidal communities to coastal plant and animal communities. In this course, students explore the biodiversity and ecology of these communities through readings, lectures, and traditional field observation/drawing. Observational drawing has a longstanding and important connection to studies of natural history and taxonomy and provides an ideal tool for understanding, appreciating and identifying the specific details of plants, animals, and their contextual environments. A place-based learning framework will provide insight into current environmental challenges and opportunities. Students spend Spring Term on the Atlantic (west) coast of Ireland, visiting coastal biomes and the biologically and historically unique Burren, a glacial karst landscape.


    •  - 

    •  - 

    • and, when appropriate,

    •  - 

  9. Plant physiology or animal behavior
  10.  

  11. Advanced level: one course chosen from
  12.  

Molecular/Cell Biology minor

A minor in Molecular/Cell Biology requires completion of 7 courses as follows. A student may not complete a minor in biology with either a major in biology or a major in neuroscience. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor. Sample 200- and 300-level graded work must be collected into a portfolio for assessment upon completion of the course requirements before a minor will be approved by the department.

1. Required courses: BIOL 111, 113
2. Genetics: BIOL 220
3. Cell biology: BIOL 211S or 230
4. Intermediate level: two courses chosen from BIOL 212S, 223, 280, 285, and, when appropriate, 297
5. Advanced level: one course chosen from BIOL 323, 340, 365, 385

  1. Required courses
  2.  

  3. Genetics
  4.  

  5. Cell biology
  6.  

  7. Intermediate level: two courses chosen from
  8.  

  9. Advanced level: one course chosen from
  10.  

Physiology minor

A minor in Physiology requires completion of 7 courses as follows. A student may not complete a minor in biology with either a major in biology or a major in neuroscience. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor. Sample 200- and 300-level graded work must be collected into a portfolio for assessment upon completion of the course requirements before a minor will be approved by the department.

1. Required courses: BIOL 111, 113
2. Genetics: BIOL 220
3. Cell biology: BIOL 211S or 230
4. Plant physiology or physiological modeling: BIOL 225 or 283
5. Intermediate level: one course chosen from BIOL 250, 255, 261S, 275, and, when appropriate 297
6. Advanced level: one course chosen from BIOL 355, 360, 362 and 397

  1. Required courses
  2.  

  3. Genetics
  4.  

  5. Cell biology
  6.  

  7. Plant physiology or physiological modeling
  8.  

  9. Intermediate level: one course chosen from
  10.  

  11. Advanced level: one course chosen from
  12.  

Quantitative Biology minor

A minor in Quantitative Biology requires completion of 7 courses as follows. A student may not complete a minor in biology with either a major in biology or a major in neuroscience. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor. Sample 200- and 300-level graded work must be collected into a portfolio for assessment upon completion of the course requirements before a minor will be approved by the department.

1. Required courses: BIOL 111, 113
2. Genetics or cell biology: BIOL 211S, 220, or 230
3. Computer science: BIOL 185, BIOL 187, or CSCI 121
4. Intermediate level: two courses chosen from BIOL 212S, 267, 282, 283, 285, and, when appropriate, 297
5. Advanced level: one course chosen from BIOL 325, 385

  1. Required courses
  2.  

  3. Genetics or cell biology: one course chosen from
  4. Computer Science: one course chosen from
  5. Intermediate level: two courses chosen from
  6.  

  7. Advanced level: one course chosen from
  8.